Considerable progress has been made in developing antifibrotic agents and other strategies to treat liver fibrosis; however, significant long-term restoration of functional liver mass has not yet been achieved. Therefore, we investigated whether transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells can effectively repopulate the liver with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Stem/progenitor cells derived from fetal livers or mature hepatocytes from DPPIV+ F344 rats were transplanted into DPPIV rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis/cirrhosis; rats were sacrificed 1, 2, or 4 months later. Liver tissues were analyzed by histochemistry, hydroxyproline determination, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. After chronic TAA administration, DPPIV F344 rats exhibited progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis, and severe hepatocyte damage. Besides stellate cell activation, increased numbers of stem/progenitor cells (Dlk-1+, AFP+, CD133+, Sox-9+, FoxJ1+) were observed. In conjunction with partial hepatectomy (PH), transplanted stem/progenitor cells engrafted, proliferated competitively compared to host hepatocytes, differentiated into hepatocytic and biliary epithelial cells, and generated new liver mass with extensive long-term liver repopulation (40.8 ± 10.3%). Remarkably, more than 20% liver repopulation was achieved in the absence of PH, associated with reduced fibrogenic activity (e.g., expression of alpha smooth muscle actin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, desmin, vimentin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and fibrosis (reduced collagen). Furthermore, hepatocytes can also replace liver mass with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, but to a lesser extent than fetal liver stem/progenitor cells. Conclusion: This study is a proof of principle demonstration that transplanted epithelial stem/progenitor cells can restore injured parenchyma in a liver environment with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and exhibit antifibrotic effects. (Hepatology 2014;58:284–295)