No detectable resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate after 6 years of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B


  • Sponsored by Gilead Sciences, Inc.

  • Potential conflict of interest: Dr. Corsa owns stock in Gilead. Dr. Snow-Lampart owns stock in Gilead. Dr. Flaherty owns stock in Gilead. Dr. Kitrinos owns stock in Gilead. Dr. Miller owns stock in Gilead. Dr. Liu owns stock in Gilead.


One major challenge in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B is to maintain long-term viral suppression without promoting the selection of drug-resistant mutations. We analyzed data from 347 hepatitis B e antigen-negative and 238 hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in an open-label, long-term extension of two phase 3 studies. To date, resistance analyses have been completed for patients receiving up to 288 weeks (6 years) of TDF. Population sequencing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase/reverse transcriptase (pol/RT) was attempted for all patients at baseline, and any patient who remained viremic (HBV DNA ≥400 copies/mL [≥69 IU/mL]) at week 288 or at the end of treatment with TDF (n = 52) or emtricitabine (FTC)/TDF (n = 7). Phenotypic analyses were performed in HepG2 cells using recombinant HBV containing patient pol/RT sequences. Approximately half of the patients on open-label treatment who qualified for genotyping had pol/RT sequence changes compared to baseline (23/52 [44%] on TDF, 4/7 [57%] on FTC/TDF). Most changes were at polymorphic sites and none were associated with TDF resistance. Virologic breakthrough occurred infrequently and was associated with nonadherence to study medication in the majority of cases (12/16, 75%). Per protocol, 57 patients (10%) were eligible to switch to FTC/TDF; the majority had HBV DNA <400 copies/mL at their last study visit regardless of whether they switched to FTC/TDF (n = 34) or maintained TDF monotherapy (n = 17). No patient exhibited persistent viremia (HBV DNA never <400 copies/mL) after week 240. Conclusion: TDF monotherapy maintains effective suppression of HBV DNA through 288 weeks of treatment with no evidence of TDF resistance. (Hepatology 2014;59:434–442)