• 1
    Farci P, Alter HJ, Govindarajan S, Wong DC, Engle R, Lesniewski RR, et al. Lack of protective immunity against reinfection with hepatitis C virus. Science 1992;258:135-140.
  • 2
    Farci P, London WT, Wong DC, Dawson GJ, Vallari DS, Engle R, et al. The natural history of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chimpanzees: comparison of serologic responses measured with first- and second-generation assays and relationship to HCV viremia. J Infect Dis 1992;165:1006-1011.
  • 3
    Abe K, Kurata T, Teramoto Y, Shiga J, Shikata T. Lack of susceptibility of various primates and woodchucks to hepatitis C virus. J Med Primatol 1993;22:433-434.
  • 4
    Tabor E, Seeff LB, Gerety RJ. Lack of susceptibility of marmosets to human non-A, non-B hepatitis. J Infect Dis 1979;140:794-797.
  • 5
    Jeremy AG, Kevin W, Paul W, Andrew JM. Lack of susceptibility of the cottontop tamarin to hepatitis C infection. J Med Virol 1997;52:286-288.
  • 6
    Bukh J, Apgar CL, Yanagi M. Toward a surrogate model for hepatitis C virus: an infectious molecular clone of the GB virus-B hepatitis agent. Virology 1999;262:470-478.
  • 7
    Sbardellati A, Scarselli E, Verschoor E, De Tomassi A, Lazzaro D, Traboni C. Generation of infectious and transmissible virions from a GB virus B full-length consensus clone in tamarins. J Gen Virol 2001;82:2437-2448.
  • 8
    Jacob JR, Lin KC, Tennant BC, Mansfield KG. GB virus B infection of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and associated liver pathology. J Gen Virol 2004;85:2525-2533.
  • 9
    Bright H, Carroll AR, Watts PA, Fenton RJ. Development of a GB virus B marmoset model and its validation with a novel series of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 protease inhibitors. J Virol 2004;78:2062-2071.
  • 10
    Rijnbrand R, Yang Y, Beales L, Bodola F, Goettge K, Cohen L, et al. A chimeric GB virus B with 5′ nontranslated RNA sequence from hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis in tamarins. Hepatology 2005;41:986-994.
  • 11
    Takikawa S, Engle RE, Emerson SU, Purcell RH, St Claire M, Bukh J. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103:3345-3350.
  • 12
    Haqshenas G, Dong X, Netter H, Torresi J, Gowans EJ. A chimeric GB virus B encoding the hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 is infectious in vivo. J Gen Virol 2007;88:895-902.
  • 13
    Griffin S, Trowbridge R, Thommes P, Parry N, Rowlands D, Harris M, et al. Chimeric GB virus B genomes containing hepatitis C virus p7 are infectious in vivo. J Hepatol 2008;49:908-915.
  • 14
    Li T, Chen Z, Zeng J, Zhang J, Wang W, Zhang L, et al. Impact of host responses on control of hepatitis C virus infection in Chinese blood donors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2011;415:503-508.
  • 15
    Zheng X, Ye X, Zhang L, Wang W, Shuai L, Wang A, et al. Characterization of occult hepatitis B virus infection from blood donors in China. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:1730-1737.
  • 16
    Ishak K, Baptista A, Bianchi L, Callea F, De Groote J, Gudat F, et al. Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol 1995;22:696-699.
  • 17
    Koo CL, Kok LF, Lee MY, Wu TS, Cheng YW, Hsu JD, et al. Scoring mechanisms of p16INK4a immunohistochemistry based on either independent nucleic stain or mixed cytoplasmic with nucleic expression can significantly signal to distinguish between endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas in a tissue microarray study. J Transl Med 2009;7:25.
  • 18
    McGovern BH, Birch CE, Bowen MJ, Reyor LL, Nagami EH, Chung RT, et al. Improving the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C virus infection with expanded viral load criteria. Clin Infect Dis 2009;49:1051-1060.
  • 19
    Woollard DJ, Haqshenas G, Dong X, Pratt BF, Kent SJ, Gowans EJ. Virus-specific T-cell immunity correlates with control of GB virus B infection in marmosets. J Virol 2008;82:3054-3060.
  • 20
    Martin A, Bodola F, Sangar DV, Goettge K, Popov V, Rijnbrand R, et al. Chronic hepatitis associated with GB virus B persistence in a tamarin after intrahepatic inoculation of synthetic viral RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:9962-9967.
  • 21
    Takikawa S, Engle RE, Faulk KN, Emerson SU, Purcell RH, Bukh J. Molecular evolution of GB virus B hepatitis virus during acute resolving and persistent infections in experimentally infected tamarins. J Gen Virol 2010;91:727-733.
  • 22
    Lanford RE, Chaveza D, Notvall L, Brasky KM. Comparison of tamarins and marmosets as hosts for GBV-B infections and the effect of immunosuppression on duration of viremia. Virology 2003;311:172-180.
  • 23
    Farci P, Alter HJ, Wong D, Miller RH, Shih JW, Jett B, et al. A long-term study of hepatitis C virus replication in non-A, non-B hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1991;325:98-104.
  • 24
    Takaki A, Wiese M, Maertens G, Depla E, Seifert U, Liebetrau A, et al. Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decrease two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C. Nat Med 2000;6:578-582.
  • 25
    Semmo N, Barnes E, Taylor C, Kurtz J, Harcourt G, Smith N, et al. T-cell responses and previous exposure to hepatitis C virus in indeterminate blood donors. Lancet 2005;365:327-329.
  • 26
    Schulze Zur Wiesch J, Ciuffreda D, Lewis-Ximenez L, Kasprowicz V, Nolan BE, Streeck H, et al. Broadly directed virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses are primed during acute hepatitis C infection, but rapidly disappear from human blood with viral persistence. J Exp Med 2012;209:61-75.
  • 27
    Cooper S, Erickson AL, Adams EJ, Kansopon J, Weiner AJ, Chien DY, et al. Analysis of a successful immune response against hepatitis C virus. Immunity 1999;10:439-449.
  • 28
    Grakoui A, Shoukry NH, Woollard DJ, Han JH, Hanson HL, Ghrayeb J, et al. HCV persistence and immune evasion in the absence of memory T cell help. Science 2003;302:659-662.
  • 29
    Shoukry NH, Grakoui A, Houghton M, Chien DY, Ghrayeb J, Reimann KA, et al. Memory CD8+ T cells are required for protection from persistent hepatitis C virus infection. J Exp Med 2003;197:1645-1655.
  • 30
    Barth H, Rybczynska J, Patient R, Choi Y, Sapp RK, Baumert TF, et al. Both innate and adaptive immunity mediate protective immunity against hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees. Hepatology 2011;54:1135-1148.
  • 31
    Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP, Qi Y, Ge D, O'Huigin C, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature 2009;461:798-801.
  • 32
    Pileri P, Uematsu Y, Campagnoli S, Galli G, Falugi F, Petracca R, et al. Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81. Science 1998;30:938-941.
  • 33
    Evans MJ, von Hahn T, Tscherne DM, Syder AJ, Panis M, Wölk B, et al. Claudin-1 is a hepatitis C virus co-receptor required for a late step in entry. Nature 2007;446:801-805.
  • 34
    Ploss A, Evans MJ, Gaysinskaya VA, Panis M, You H, de Jong YP, et al. Human occludin is a hepatitis C virus entry factor required for infection of mouse cells. Nature 2009;457:882-886.