Potential conflict of interest: Dr. Mantovani and Dr. Sica received grants from Johnson & Johnson.
Macrophage plasticity and polarization in liver homeostasis and pathology
Article first published online: 1 APR 2014
© 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Volume 59, Issue 5, pages 2034–2042, May 2014
How to Cite
Sica, A., Invernizzi, P. and Mantovani, A. (2014), Macrophage plasticity and polarization in liver homeostasis and pathology. Hepatology, 59: 2034–2042. doi: 10.1002/hep.26754
This work was supported by Associazione Italiana Ricerca sul Cancro (AIRC), Italy, Fondazione Cariplo, Italy, Ministero Università Ricerca (MIUR) e Salute, and by the European Commission (ERC project no.: 233417 HIIS; to A.M.).
A full reference list is available as Supporting Information. We apologize to colleagues who, because of space limitations, are only cited there.
- Issue published online: 23 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 1 APR 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 1 OCT 2013 04:15AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 21 MAY 2013
Resident and recruited macrophages are key players in the homeostatic function of the liver and in its response to tissue damage. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarized activation to M1 or M2 or M2-like activation states. These are extremes of a spectrum in a universe of activation states. Progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the polarized activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Resident and recruited macrophages are a key component of diverse homeostatic and pathological responses of hepatic tissue. Polarized macrophages interact with hepatic progenitor cells, integrate metabolic adaptation, mediate responses to infectious agents, orchestrate fibrosis in a yin-yang interaction with hepatic stellate cells, and are a key component of tumor-promoting inflammation. Conclusion: A better understanding of macrophage diversity and plasticity in liver homeostasis and pathology may pave the way to innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. (Hepatology 2014;59:2034–2042)