Bile acids reach out to the spinal cord: New insights to the pathogenesis of itch and analgesia in cholestatic liver disease


  • Paul A. Dawson Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Gastroenterology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC
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  • Saul J. Karpen M.D., Ph.D.

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA
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  • Potential conflict of interest: Dr. Dawson has received funding from, and consults for, Lumena Pharmaceuticals and has also consulted for GlaxoSmithKline.

  • This work was supported by National Institutes of Health research grants (DK047987 [to P.A.D.] and DK56239 [to S.J.K.]).