• 1
    Pestka JM, Zeisel MB, Blaser E, Schurmann P, Bartosch B, Cosset FL, et al. Rapid induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies and viral clearance in a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007;104:6025-6030.
  • 2
    Liu L, Fisher BE, Thomas DL, Cox AL, Ray SC. Spontaneous clearance of primary acute hepatitis C virus infection correlated with high initial viral RNA level and rapid HVR1 evolution. Hepatology 2012;55:1684-1691.
  • 3
    Dowd KA, Netski DM, Wang XH, Cox AL, Ray SC. Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus. Gastroenterology 2009;136:2377-2386.
  • 4
    Simmonds P. Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus — 15 years on. J Gen Virol 2004;85:3173-3188.
  • 5
    Mao Q, Ray SC, Laeyendecker O, Ticehurst JR, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion and evolution of the hepatitis C virus quasispecies. J Virol 2001;75:3259-3267.
  • 6
    Pybus OG, Charleston MA, Gupta S, Rambaut A, Holmes EC, Harvey PH. The epidemic behavior of the hepatitis C virus. Science 2001;292:2323-2325.
  • 7
    Cox AL, Netski DM, Mosbruger T, Sherman SG, Strathdee S, Ompad D, et al. Prospective evaluation of community-acquired acute-phase hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:951-958.
  • 8
    Osburn WO, Fisher BE, Dowd KA, Urban G, Liu L, Ray SC, et al. Spontaneous control of primary hepatitis C virus infection and immunity against persistent reinfection. Gastroenterology 2010;138:315-324.
  • 9
    Kenny-Walsh E. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. Irish Hepatology Research Group. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1228-1233.
  • 10
    Raghuraman S, Park H, Osburn WO, Winkelstein E, Edlin BR, Rehermann B. Spontaneous clearance of chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with appearance of neutralizing antibodies and reversal of T-cell exhaustion. J Infect Dis 2012;205:763-771.
  • 11
    Jeanmougin F, Thompson JD, Gouy M, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ. Multiple sequence alignment with Clustal X. Trends Biochem Sci 1998;23:403-405.
  • 12
    Hall TA. BioEdit: Biological sequence alignment editor for Windows 95/98/NT version 7.1.3. software 2001; Distributed by author: (accessed 26 March 2012).
  • 13
    Ray SC, Wang YM, Laeyendecker O, Ticehurst JR, Villano SA, Thomas DL. Acute hepatitis C virus structural gene sequences as predictors of persistent viremia: hypervariable region 1 as a decoy. J Virol 1999;73:2938-2946.
  • 14
    Broering TJ, Garrity KA, Boatright NK, Sloan SE, Sandor F, Thomas WD Jr, et al. Identification and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies directed against the E2 envelope glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus. J Virol 2009;83:12473-12482.
  • 15
    Perotti M, Mancini N, Diotti RA, Tarr AW, Ball JK, Owsianka A, et al. Identification of a broadly cross-reacting and neutralizing human monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatitis C virus E2 protein. J Virol 2008;82:1047-1052.
  • 16
    Allander T, Drakenberg K, Beyene A, Rosa D, Abrignani S, Houghton M, et al. Recombinant human monoclonal antibodies against different conformational epitopes of the E2 envelope glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus that inhibit its interaction with CD81. J Gen Virol 2000;81(Pt 10):2451-2459.
  • 17
    Owsianka AM, Tarr AW, Keck ZY, Li TK, Witteveldt J, Adair R, et al. Broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein. J Gen Virol 2008;89(Pt 3):653-659.
  • 18
    Keck ZY, Xia J, Wang Y, Wang W, Krey T, Prentoe J, et al. Human monoclonal antibodies to a novel cluster of conformational epitopes on HCV e2 with resistance to neutralization escape in a genotype 2a isolate. PLoS Pathog 2012;8:e1002653.
  • 19
    Giang E, Dorner M, Prentoe JC, Dreux M, Evans MJ, Bukh J, et al. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:6205-6210.
  • 20
    Law M, Maruyama T, Lewis J, Giang E, Tarr AW, Stamataki Z, et al. Broadly neutralizing antibodies protect against hepatitis C virus quasispecies challenge. Nat Med 2008;14:25-27.
  • 21
    Kong L, Giang E, Robbins JB, Stanfield RL, Burton DR, Wilson IA, et al. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:9499-9504.
  • 22
    Tarr AW, Urbanowicz RA, Jayaraj D, Brown RJ, McKeating JA, Irving WL, et al. Naturally occurring antibodies that recognize linear epitopes in the amino terminus of the hepatitis C virus E2 protein confer noninterfering, additive neutralization. J Virol 2012;86:2739-2749.
  • 23
    Helle F, Goffard A, Morel V, Duverlie G, McKeating J, Keck ZY, et al. The neutralizing activity of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies is modulated by specific glycans on the E2 envelope protein. J Virol 2007;81:8101-8111.
  • 24
    Johansson DX, Voisset C, Tarr AW, Aung M, Ball JK, Dubuisson J, et al. Human combinatorial libraries yield rare antibodies that broadly neutralize hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007;104:16269-16274.
  • 25
    Duggal P, Thio CL, Wojcik GL, Goedert JJ, Mangia A, Latanich R, et al. Genome-wide association study of spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus infection: data from multiple cohorts. Ann Intern Med 2013;158:235-245.
  • 26
    Tarr AW, Urbanowicz RA, Hamed MR, Albecka A, McClure CP, Brown RJ, et al. Hepatitis C patient-derived glycoproteins exhibit marked differences in susceptibility to serum neutralizing antibodies: genetic subtype defines antigenic but not neutralization serotype. J Virol 2011;85:4246-4257.
  • 27
    Cox AL, Mosbruger T, Lauer GM, Pardoll D, Thomas DL, Ray SC. Comprehensive analyses of CD8+ T cell responses during longitudinal study of acute human hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005;42:104-112.
  • 28
    Takaki A, Wiese M, Maertens G, Depla E, Seifert U, Liebetrau A, et al. Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decrease two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C. Nat Med 2000;6:578-582.
  • 29
    Steinmann D, Barth H, Gissler B, Schurmann P, Adah MI, Gerlach JT, et al. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus-like particle binding to target cells by antiviral antibodies in acute and chronic hepatitis C. J Virol 2004;78:9030-9040.
  • 30
    Logvinoff C, Major ME, Oldach D, Heyward S, Talal A, Balfe P, et al. Neutralizing antibody response during acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004;101:10149-10154.
  • 31
    Lavillette D, Morice Y, Germanidis G, Donot P, Soulier A, Pagkalos E, et al. Human serum facilitates hepatitis C virus infection, and neutralizing responses inversely correlate with viral replication kinetics at the acute phase of hepatitis C virus infection. J Virol 2005;79:6023-6034.
  • 32
    Brown RJ, Tarr AW, McClure CP, Juttla VS, Tagiuri N, Irving WL, et al. Cross-genotype characterization of genetic diversity and molecular adaptation in hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein genes. J Gen Virol 2007;88(Pt 2):458-469.
  • 33
    Edwards V, Tarr AW, Urbanowicz R, Ball J. The role of neutralising antibodies in hepatitis C virus infection. J Gen Virol 2012;93:1-19.
  • 34
    Wang Y, Keck ZY, Foung SK. Neutralizing antibody response to hepatitis C virus. Viruses 2011;3:2127-2145.
  • 35
    Zhang J, Randall G, Higginbottom A, Monk P, Rice CM, McKeating JA. CD81 is required for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein-mediated viral infection. J Virol 2004;78:1448-1455.
  • 36
    Allanore Y, Saad M, Dieude P, Avouac J, Distler JH, Amouyel P, et al. Genome-wide scan identifies TNIP1, PSORS1C1, and RHOB as novel risk loci for systemic sclerosis. PLoS Genet 2011;7:e1002091.
  • 37
    Park J, Namkung J, Jhun M, Park T. Genome-wide analysis of haplotype interaction for the data from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium. BMC Proc 2009;3(Suppl 7):S34.