• 1
    Lam KC, Lai CL, Trepo C, Wu PC. Deleterious effect of prednisolone in HBsAg-positive chronic active hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1981;304:380-386.
  • 2
    Greenberg HB, Pollard RB, Lutwick LI, Gregory PB, Robinson WS, Merigan TC. Effect of human leukocyte interferon on hepatitis B virus infection in patients with chronic active hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1976;295:517-522.
  • 3
    Lok AS, Weller IV, Karayiannis P, Brown D, Fowler MJ, Monjardino J, et al. Thrice weekly lymphoblastoid interferon is effective in inhibiting hepatitis B virus replication. Liver 1984;4:45-49.
  • 4
    Smith CI, Kitchen LW, Scullard GH, Robinson WS, Gregory PB, Merigan TC. Vidarabine monophosphate and human leukocyte interferon in chronic hepatitis B infection. JAMA 1982;247:2261-2265.
  • 5
    Hoofnagle JH, Minuk GY, Dusheiko GM, Schafer DF, Johnson R, Straus S, et al. Adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate treatment of chronic type B hepatitis. Hepatology 1982;2:784-788.
  • 6
    Lok AS, Novick DM, Karayiannis P, Dunk AA, Sherlock S, Thomas HC. A randomized study of the effects of adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate (short or long courses) and lymphoblastoid interferon on hepatitis B virus replication. Hepatology 1985;5:1132-1138.
  • 7
    Lok AS, Hadziyannis SJ, Weller IV, Karvountzis MG, Monjardino J, Karayiannis P, et al. Contribution of low level HBV replication to continuing inflammatory activity in patients with anti-HBe positive chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Gut 1984;25:1283-1287.
  • 8
    Lai CL, Lok AS, Lin HJ, Wu PC, Yeoh EK, Yeung CY. Placebo-controlled trial of recombinant alpha 2-interferon in Chinese HBsAg-carrier children. Lancet 1987;2:877-880.
  • 9
    Lok AS, Lai CL, Wu PC, Leung EK. Long-term follow-up in a randomised controlled trial of recombinant alpha 2-interferon in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Lancet 1988;2:298-302.
  • 10
    Lok AS, Wu PC, Lai CL, Lau JY, Leung EK, Wong LS, et al. A controlled trial of interferon with or without prednisone priming for chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 1992;102:2091-2097.
  • 11
    Perrillo RP, Schiff ER, Davis GL, Bodenheimer HC Jr, Lindsay K, Payne J, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b alone and after prednisone withdrawal for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. N Engl J Med 1990;323:295-301.
  • 12
    Lok AS, Liang RH, Chiu EK, Wong KL, Chan TK, Todd D. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy. Report of a prospective study. Gastroenterology 1991;100:182-188.
  • 13
    Hwang JP, Lok AS. Management of patients with hepatitis B who require immunosuppressive therapy. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 14
    Carman WF, Jacyna MR, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, McGarvey MJ, Makris A, et al. Mutation preventing formation of hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Lancet 1989;2:588-591.
  • 15
    Junker-Niepmann M, Bartenschlager R, Schaller H. A short cis-acting sequence is required for hepatitis B virus pregenome encapsidation and sufficient for packaging of foreign RNA. EMBO J 1990;9:3389-3396.
  • 16
    Lok AS, Akarca U, Greene S. Mutations in the pre-core region of hepatitis B virus serve to enhance the stability of the secondary structure of the pre-genome encapsidation signal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91:4077-4081.
  • 17
    Tong SP, Li JS, Vitvitski L, Kay A, Treepo C. Evidence for a base-paired region of hepatitis B virus pregenome encapsidation signal which influences the patterns of precore mutations abolishing HBe protein expression. J Virol 1993;67:5651-5655.
  • 18
    McKenzie R, Fried MW, Sallie R, Conjeevaram H, Di Bisceglie AM, Park Y, et al. Hepatic failure and lactic acidosis due to fialuridine (FIAU), an investigational nucleoside analogue for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1099-1105.
  • 19
    Lai CL, Chien RN, Leung NW, Chang TT, Guan R, Tai DI, et al. A one-year trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. Asia Hepatitis Lamivudine Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339:61-68.
  • 20
    Dienstag JL, Schiff ER, Wright TL, Perrillo RP, Hann HW, Goodman Z, et al. Lamivudine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis B in the United States. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1256-1263.
  • 21
    Marcellin P, Gane E, Buti M, Afdhal N, Sievert W, Jacobson IM, et al. Regression of cirrhosis during treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for chronic hepatitis B: a 5-year open-label follow-up study. Lancet 2013;381:468-475.
  • 22
    Liaw YF, Sung JJ, Chow WC, Farrell G, Lee CZ, Yuen H, et al. Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1521-1531.
  • 23
    Kim WR, Terrault NA, Pedersen RA, Therneau TM, Edwards E, Hindman AA, et al. Trends in waiting list registration for liver transplantation for viral hepatitis in the United States. Gastroenterology 2009;137:1680-1686.
  • 24
    Samuel D, Muller R, Alexander G, Fassati L, Ducot B, Benhamou JP, et al. Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1842-1847.
  • 25
    Degertekin B, Han SH, Keeffe EB, Schiff ER, Luketic VA, Brown RS Jr, et al. Impact of virologic breakthrough and HBIG regimen on hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation. Am J Transplant 2010;10:1823-1833.
  • 26
    Chu CJ, Keeffe EB, Han SH, Perrillo RP, Min AD, Soldevila-Pico C, et al. Hepatitis B virus genotypes in the United States: results of a nationwide study. Gastroenterology 2003;125:444-451.
  • 27
    Kowdley KV, Wang CC, Welch S, Roberts H, Brosgart CL. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B among foreign-born persons living in the United States by country of origin. Hepatology 2012;56:422-433.