• 1
    Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5:558-567.
  • 2
    Chak E, Talal AH, Sherman KE, Schiff ER, Saab S. Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver Int 2011;31:1090-1101.
  • 3
    Neumann AU, Lam NP, Dahari H, Gretch DR, Wiley TE, Layden TJ, Perelson AS. Hepatitis C viral dynamics in vivo and the antiviral efficacy of interferon-α therapy. Science 1998;282:103-107.
  • 4
    Zeremski M, Petrovic LM, Talal AH. The role of chemokines as inflammatory mediators in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat 2007;14:675-687.
  • 5
    Jacobson IM, McHutchison JG, Dusheiko G, Di Bisceglie AM, Reddy KR, Bzowej NH, et al. Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2011;364:2405-2416.
  • 6
    Poordad F, McCone J, Jr., Bacon BR, Bruno S, Manns MP, Sulkowski MS, et al. Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med 2011;364:1195-1206.
  • 7
    Zeuzem S, Herrmann E, Lee JH, Fricke J, Neumann AU, Modi M, et al. Viral kinetics in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with standard or peginterferon alpha2a. Gastroenterology 2001;120:1438-1447.
  • 8
    Adiwijaya BS, Kieffer TL, Henshaw J, Eisenhauer K, Kimko H, Alam JJ, et al. A viral dynamic model for treatment regimens with direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C infection. PLoS Comput Biol 2012;8:e1002339.
  • 9
    Guedj J, Perelson AS. Second-phase hepatitis C virus RNA decline during telaprevir-based therapy increases with drug effectiveness: implications for treatment duration. Hepatology 2011;53:1801-1808.
  • 10
    Feld JJ, Nanda S, Huang Y, Chen W, Cam M, Pusek SN, et al. Hepatic gene expression during treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin: identifying molecular pathways for treatment response. Hepatology 2007;46:1548-1563.
  • 11
    Sarasin-Filipowicz M, Oakeley EJ, Duong FH, Christen V, Terracciano L, Filipowicz W, Heim MH. Interferon signaling and treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:7034-7039.
  • 12
    Lau DT, Fish PM, Sinha M, Owen DM, Lemon SM, Gale M, Jr. Interferon regulatory factor-3 activation, hepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression, and immune cell infiltration in hepatitis C virus patients. Hepatology 2008;47:799-809.
  • 13
    Chhieng DC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of liver —an update. World J Surg Oncol 2004;2:5.
  • 14
    Perni RB, Almquist SJ, Byrn RA, Chandorkar G, Chaturvedi PR, Courtney LF, et al. Preclinical profile of VX-950, a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS3-4A serine protease. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:899-909.
  • 15
    Lin K, Perni RB, Kwong AD, Lin C. VX-950, a novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A protease inhibitor, exhibits potent antiviral activities in HCv replicon cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:1813-1822.
  • 16
    Kieffer TL, De Meyer S, Bartels DJ, Sullivan JC, Zhang EZ, Tigges A, et al. Hepatitis C viral evolution in genotype 1 treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients receiving telaprevir-based therapy in clinical trials. PLoS One 2012;7:e34372.
  • 17
    Vertex Pharmaceuticals. Prescribing information for incivik. Available at: Accessed January 13, 2013.
  • 18
    Chen L, Borozan I, Sun J, Guindi M, Fischer S, Feld J, et al. Cell-type specific gene expression signature in liver underlies response to interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C infection. Gastroenterology 2010;138:1123-1133.e1-3.
  • 19
    Dill MT, Duong FH, Vogt JE, Bibert S, Bochud PY, Terracciano L, et al. Interferon-induced gene expression is a stronger predictor of treatment response than IL28B genotype in patients with hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2011;140:1021-1031.
  • 20
    Kieffer TL, Sarrazin C, Miller JS, Welker MW, Forestier N, Reesink HW, et al. Telaprevir and pegylated interferon-alpha-2a inhibit wild-type and resistant genotype 1 hepatitis C virus replication in patients. Hepatology 2007;46:631-639.
  • 21
    McGivern D, Feng Z, Lovell W, Hamlett C, Saalau-Bethell S, Graham B. Dissecting activities of an allosteric NS3 inhibitor using cell-based assays [abstract #102]. In: HEP DART 2013: Frontiers in Drug Development for Viral Hepatitis, December 8-12, 2013, Big Island, HI. Global Antiviral J 2013;9(Suppl 2):89.
  • 22
    Wakita T, Pietschmann T, Kato T, Date T, Miyamoto M, Zhao Z, et al. Production of infectious hepatitis C virus in tissue culture from a cloned viral genome. Nat Med 2005;11:791-796.
  • 23
    Liang Y, Shilagard T, Xiao SY, Snyder N, Lau D, Cicalese L, et al. Visualizing hepatitis C virus infections in human liver by two-photon microscopy. Gastroenterology 2009;137:1448-1458.
  • 24
    Chang M, Marquardt AP, Wood BL, Williams O, Cotler SJ, Taylor SL, et al. In situ distribution of hepatitis C virus replicative-intermediate RNA in hepatic tissue and its correlation with liver disease. J Virol 2000;74:944-955.
  • 25
    Zhong J, Gastaminza P, Cheng G, Kapadia S, Kato T, Burton DR, et al. Robust hepatitis C virus infection in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102:9294-9299.
  • 26
    Zeremski M, Petrovic LM, Chiriboga L, Brown QB, Yee HT, Kinkhabwala M, et al. Intrahepatic levels of CXCR3-associated chemokines correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2008;48:1440-1450.
  • 27
    Reddy MB, Morcos PN, Le Pogam S, Ou Y, Frank K, Lave T, Smith P. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic predictors of clinical potency for hepatitis C virus nonnucleoside polymerase and protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012;56:3144-3156.
  • 28
    Garg V, van Heeswijk R, Lee JE, Alves K, Nadkarni P, Luo X. Effect of telaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Hepatology 2011;54:20-27.