• 1
    Samuel D, Muller R, Alexander G, Fassati L, Ducot B, Benhamou JP, Bismuth H. Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 18421847.
  • 2
    Samuel D, Bismuth A, Mathieu D, Arulnaden J, Reynes M, Benhamou J, Brechot C, et al. Passive immunoprophylaxis after liver transplantation in HBsAg-positive patients. Lancet 1991; 337: 813815.
  • 3
    Todo S, Demetris AJ, Van Thiel D, Tepperman L, Fung JJ, Starzl TE. Orthotopic liver transplantation for patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease. Hepatology 1991; 13: 619626.
  • 4
    O'Grady JG, Smith HM, Davis SE, Daniels HM, Donaldson PT, Tan KC, Portmann B, et al. Hepatitis B virus reinfection after orthotopic liver transplantation: serological and clinical implications. J Hepatol 1992; 14: 104111.
  • 5
    Perrillo RP, Schiff ER, Davis GL, Bodenheimer HC, Lindsay K, Payne J, Dienstag JL, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b alone and after prednisone withdrawal for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 295301.
  • 6
    Wright HI, Gavaler JS, Van Thiel DH. Preliminary experience with alpha 2b interferon therapy of viral hepatitis in liver allograft recipients. Transplantation 1992; 53: 121124.
  • 7
    Marcellin P, Samuel D, Loriot MA, Areias J, Bismuth H, Benhamou JP. Anti-viral effect of adenine arabinoside monophosphate (ARA-AMP) in patients with recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after liver transplantation [Abstract]. Hepatology 1990; 12: 966A.
  • 8
    Crippin J, Foster B, Carlen S, Borcich A, Bodenheimer H Jr. Retransplantation in hepatitis B—a multicenter experience. Transplantation 1994; 57: 823826.
  • 9
    Chossegros P, Pouteil-Noble C, Samuel D, Causse X, Ouzan D, Bizollon T, Touraine JL, et al. Ganciclovir is an effective antiviral agent for post-transplantation chronic HBV infections, maintenance therapy may be required in some cases [abstract]. Gastro-enterology 1993; 104: A888.
  • 10
    Knodell RG, Ishak KG, Black WC, Chen TS, Craig R, Kaplowitz N, Kiernan TW, et al. Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1981; 1: 431435.
  • 11
    Naoumov NV, Portmann BS, Tedder RS, Ferns B, Eddleston ALWF, Alexander GJM, Williams R, et al. Detection of hepatitis B virus antigens in liver tissue: a relation to viral replication and histology in chronic hepatitis B infection. Gastroenterology 1990; 99: 12481253.
  • 12
    Mondelli MU, Tedder RS, Ferns B, Pontisso P, Realdi G, Alberti A. Differential distribution of hepatitis core and e antigens in hepatocytes: analysis by monoclonal antibodies. Hepatology 1986; 6: 199204.
  • 13
    Wu PC, Lau JYN, Lau S, Lau T, Lai CL. Relationship between intrahepatic expression of hepatitis B viral antigens and histology in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1993; 100: 648653.
  • 14
    Lau JYN, Naoumov NV, Alexander GJM, Williams R. Rapid detection of HBV DNA in liver tissue by in-situ hybridisation and its combination with immunohistochemistry for simultaneous detection of hepatitis B viral (HBV) antigens. J Clin Pathol 1991; 44: 905908.
  • 15
    Berninger M, Hammer M, Hoyer B, Gerin JL. An assay for the detection of the DNA genome of hepatitis B virus in serum. J Med Virol 1982; 9: 5768.
  • 16
    Ono Y, Onda H, Sasada R, Igarashi K, Sugino Y, Nishioka K. The complete nucleotide sequences of the cloned hepatitis B virus DNA; subtype adr and adw. Nucleic Acids Res 1983; 11: 17471757.
  • 17
    Davies SE, Portmann BC, O'Grady JG, Aldis PM, Chaggar K, Alexander GJ, Williams R. Hepatic histological findings after transplantation for chronic hepatitis B virus infection, including a unique pattern of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 13: 150157.
  • 18
    Benner KG, Lee RG, Keeffe EB, Lopez RR, Sasaki AW, Pinson CW. Fibrosing cytolytic liver failure secondary to recurrent hepatitis B after liver transplantation. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 13071312.
  • 19
    Lau JYN, Davies SE, Bain VG, O'Grady JG, Alberti A, Alexander GJM, Williams R. High level expression of hepatitis B viral antigens in fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 956962.
  • 20
    Fang JWS, Wright TL, Lau JYN. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in a patient with HIV and hepatitis B (letter). Lancet 1993; 342: 1175.
  • 21
    Chen CH, Chen PJ, Chu JS, Yeh KH, Lai MY, Chen DS. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in a hepatitis B surface antigen carrier after renal transplantation. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 15141518.
  • 22
    Chazouilleres O, Mamish D, Kim M, Carey K, Ferrell L, Roberts JP, Ascher NL, et al. “Occult” hepatitis B virus as source of infection in liver transplant recipients. Lancet 1994; 343: 142146.
  • 23
    Locarnini S, Guo K, Lucas R, Gust I. Inhibition of HBV DNA replication by ganciclovir in patients with AIDS. Lancet 1989; 2: 12251226.
  • 24
    Böker KHW, Ringe B, Krüger M, Pichlmayr R, Manns MP. Prostaglandin E plus famciclovir—a new concept for the treatment of severe hepatitis B after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1994; 57: 17061708.
  • 25
    Angus P, Richards M, Bowden S, Ireton J, Sinclair R, Jones R, Locarnini S. Combination antiviral therapy controls severe post-liver transplant recurrence of hepatitis B virus infection. J Gas-troenterol Hepatol 1993; 8: 353357.
  • 26
    Lau JYN, Bain VG, Davies SE, Alexander GJM, Williams R. Export of intracellular HBsAg in chronic hepatitis B virus infection is related to viral replication. Hepatology 1991; 14: 416421.
  • 27
    Chisari FV, Filippi P, Buras J, McLachlan A, Popper H, Pinkert CA, Palmiter RD, et al. Structural and pathological effects of synthesis of hepatitis B virus large envelope polypeptide in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987; 84: 69096913.
  • 28
    Shikata T, Uzawa T, Yoshiwara N, Akatsuka T, Yamazaki S. Staining methods of Australia antigen in paraffin section—detection of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Jpn J Exp Med 1974; 44: 2536.
  • 29
    Tyrrell DLJ, Mitchell MC, De Man RA, Schalm SW, Main J, Thomas HC, Fevery J, et al. Phase II trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B [abstract]. Hepatology 1993; 18: 112A.