The effects of daily cocaine administration for up to 14 days were studied in terms of hepatic morphology and the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the mouse liver. Daily intraperitoneal doses of 60 mg/kg of cocaine for 3 days induced severe hepatocellular necrosis in the pericentral zone and decreased activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A4/5, and CYP2Cx. The microsomal CYP2B10 protein content was increased by about 2.5-fold, but 2B10-dependent 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity was barely detectable. Five or seven daily cocaine doses caused prominent pericentral inflammation and a significant (up to 14-fold) increase in the microsomal protein content and PROD activity. An increase in microsomal CYP3A was also evident, but CYP2A5 and CYP1A2 still remained at a low level. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the relative induction of CYP2B10 and CYP3A after treatment with cocaine was strongest in perivenous hepatocytes. Immunoinhibition experiments showed that CYP2B10 accounted for catalysis of only 15% to 20% of the enhanced microsomal cocaine N-demethylase (CNDM) activity, which correlated well with immunoreactive 3A protein, and could be blocked 70% to 90% by triacetyloleandomycin. After 10 or 14 daily doses of cocaine, regenerative changes with hepatocyte ballooning were observed, coinciding with increases in CYP1A2, CYP2A4/5, and CYP3A. These results suggest the following: (1) cocaine enhances its own cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism; (2) increased production of norcocaine in microsomes is catalyzed mainly by CYP3A enzyme(s), whereas 2B10, although markedly increased by cocaine treatment, has only a minor role in cocaine hepatotoxicity; and (3) despite increased microsomal CNDM activity, cocaine-induced liver injury is reversible in mice.