• 1
    Popper H. Hepatocellular degeneration and death. In: AriasIM, JakobyWB, PopperH, SchachterD, ShafritzDA, eds. The liver: biology and pathobiology. New York: Raven, 1988: 10871103.
  • 2
    Alison MR, Sarraf CE. Liver cell death: patterns and mechanisms. Gut 1994; 35: 577581.
  • 3
    Schwartzman RA, Cidlowski JA. Apoptosis: the biochemistry and molecular biology of programmed cell death. Endocr Rev 1993; 14: 133151.
  • 4
    Kerr JFR, Winterford CM, Harmon BV. Apoptosis: its significance in cancer and cancer therapy. Cancer 1994; 73: 20132026.
  • 5
    Bissell DM, Wang S-S, Jamagin WR, Roll FJ. Cell-specific expression of transforming growth factor-beta in rat liver. J Clin Invest 1995; 96: 447455.
  • 6
    Milani S, Herbst H, Schuppan D, Stein H, Surrenti C. Transforming growth factor-β1 and -β2 are differently expressed in fibrotic liver disease. Am J Pathol 1991; 139: 12211229.
  • 7
    Nagy P, Schaff Z, Lapis K. Immunohistochemical detection of transforming growth factor-β1 in fibrotic liver diseases. Hepatology 1991; 14: 269273.
  • 8
    Annoni G, Weiner FR, Zern MA. Increased transforming growth factor-β1 gene expression in human liver disease. J Hepatol 1992; 14: 259264.
  • 9
    Anscher MS, Crocker IR, Jirtle RL. Transforming growth factor-β1 expression in irradiated liver. Radiat Res 1990; 122: 7785.
  • 10
    Oberhammer F, Bursch W, Parezefall W, Breit P, Erber E, Stadler M, Schulte-Hermann R. Effect of transforming growth factor-β on cell death of cultured rat hepatocytes. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 24782485.
  • 11
    Oberhammer F, Bursch W, Tiefenbacher R, Froschl G, Pavelka M, Purchio T, Schulte-Hermann R. Apoptosis is induced by transforming growth factor-β1 within 5 hours in regressing liver without significant fragmentation of the DNA. Hepatology 1993; 18: 12381246.
  • 12
    Oberhammer FA, Pavelka M, Sharma S, Tiefenbacher R, Pur-chiro AF, Bursch W, Schulte-Hermann R. Induction of apoptosis in cultured hepatocytes and in regressing liver by transforming growth factor-β1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89: 54085412.
  • 13
    Chuang LY, Hung WC, Chang CC, Tsai JH. Characterization of apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 in human hepatoma cells. Anticancer Res 1994; 14: 147152.
  • 14
    Fukuda K, Kojiro M, Chiu J-F. Induction of apoptosis by transforming growth factor-β1 in the rat hepatoma cell line McA-RH7777: a possible association with tissue transglutaminase expression. Hepatology 1993; 18: 945953.
  • 15
    Lin JK, Chou CK. In vitro apoptosis in the human hepatoma cell line induced by transforming growth factor-β1. Cancer Res 1992; 52: 385388.
  • 16
    Bursch W, Oberhammer F, Jirtle RL, Askari M, Sedivy R, Grasl-kraupp B, Purchio AF. et al. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 as a signal for induction of cell death by apoptosis. Br J Cancer 1993; 67: 531536.
  • 17
    Sanderson N, Factor V, Nagy P, Kopp J, Kondaiah P, Wakefield L, Roberts AB. et al. Hepatic expression of mature transforming growth factor beta 1 in transgenic mice results in multiple tissue lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 25722576.
  • 18
    Terrell TG, Working PK, Chow CP, Green JD, Richter GW, Solez K, Ryffel B. Pathology of recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta 1 in rats and rabbits. Int Rev Exp Pathol 1994; 34B: 4367.
  • 19
    Fukuda K, Kojiro M, Chiu J-F. Demonstration of extensive chro-matin cleavage in transplanted Morris Hepatoma 7777 tissue: apoptosis or necrosis? Am J Pathol 1993; 142: 935946.
  • 20
    Becker JE, de Nechaud B, Potter VR. Two new rat hepatoma cell lines for studying the unbalanced blocked ontogeny hypothesis. In: FishmanWH, SellS, eds. Onco-developmental gene expression. New York: Academic, 1976: 259270.
  • 21
    Seglen PO. Preparation of isolated rat liver cells. Methods Cell Biol 1976; 13: 2983.
  • 22
    Chow SC, McConkey DJ, Orrenius S, Jondal M. Quantitation of DNA fragmentation using fiberglass filters. Anal Biochem 1989; 183: 4245.
  • 23
    Kroemer G, Martinez C. Pharmacological inhibition of programmed lymphocyte death. Immunol Today 1994; 15: 235242.
  • 24
    Ogasawara J, Watanabe-Fukunaga R, Adachi M, Matsuzawa A, Kasugai T, Kitamura Y, Itoh N. et al. Lethal effect of the anti-Fas antibody in mice. Nature 1993; 364: 806809.
  • 25
    Kerr JF, Cooksley WGE, Searle J, Halliday JW, Halliday WJ, Holder L, Roberts I. et al. The nature of piecemeal necrosis in chronic active hepatitis. Lancet 1979; 2: 827828.
  • 26
    Searle J, Harmon BV, Bishop CJ, Kerr JFR. The significance of cell death by apoptosis in hepatobiliary disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1987; 2: 7796.
  • 27
    Hiramatsu N, Hayashi N, Katayama K, Mochizuki K, Kawanishi Y, Kasahara A, Fusamoto H. et al. Immunohistochemical detection of Fas antigen in liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1994; 19: 13541359.
  • 28
    Mita E, Hayashi N, Iio S, Takehara T, Hijioka T, Kasahara A, Fusamoto H. et al. Role of Fas ligand in apoptosis induced by hepatitis C virus infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 204: 468474.
  • 29
    Fukuda K, Kojiro M, Chiu J-F. Differential regulation of tissue transglutaminase in rat hepatoma cell lines McA-RH7777 and McA-RH8994: Relation to growth rate and cell death. J Cell Biochem 1994; 54: 6777.
  • 30
    Oberhammer F, Schmied M, Fritsch G, Pavelka M, Printz D, Purchio T, Lassmann H. et al. Condensation of the chromatin at the membrane of an apoptotic nucleus is not associated with activation of an endonuclease. J Cell Sci 1993; 104: 317326.
  • 31
    Sun DY, Jiang S, Zheng L-M, Ojcius DM, Young JD-E. Separate metabolic pathways leading to DNA fragmentation and apoptotic chromatin condensation. J Exp Med 1994; 179: 559568.
  • 32
    Onji M, Kikuchi M, Michitaka K, Yamashita Y, Ohta Y. Combined use of ursodeoxycholic acid and Inchin-ko-to in jaundiced patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Journal of the Medical and Pharmaceutical Society for WAKAN-YAKU 1990; 7: 161167.
  • 33
    Naeba K, Ri S, Yamada T. Effects of oriental medicine on general condition and on liver function following surgery. In: OdaT, NeedhamJ, OtsukaY. et al., eds. Recent advances in traditional medicine in East Asia: Proceedings of Symposium 9 and Satellite Symposium 8 of the 17th International Congress of Internal Medicine, Kyoto, Japan, October 1984. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1985: 120127.
  • 34
    Yukawa T, Takano R, Miyoshi T. Experimental studies on cho-leretic agents. Exp Gastroenterol 1929; 3: 13491379.
  • 35
    Mashimo D, Shimizu K, Chihara G. Study on choleretics: Especially choleretic action of “Inchinko-to” (Artemisiae capillaris, Gardenia jasminosides and Rheum palamatum). Saishin-Igaku 1963; 18: 14301435.
  • 36
    Aburada M, Sasaki H, Harada M. Pharmacological studies of Gardeniae Fructus. II. Contribution of the constituent crude drugs to choleretic activity of “Inchinko-to” in rats. Yakugaku Zasshi 1976; 96: 147153.
  • 37
    Okuno I, Uchida K, Kadowaki M, Akahori A. Choleretic effect of Artemisia capillaris extract in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1981; 31: 835838.
  • 38
    Yamahara J, Matsuda H, Sawada T, Mibu H, Fujimura H. Biologically active principles of crude drugs: pharmacological evaluation of Artemisiae capillaris FLOS. (1). Yakugaku Zasshi 1982; 102: 285291.
  • 39
    Ihara N, Arichi S. Protective effect of oriental crude drugs and Kampo medicament on a fulminant type of galactosamine-in-duced hepatitis. Proc Symp Wakan-Yaku 1981; 14: 4555.
  • 40
    Kiso Y, Ogasawara S, Hirota K, Watanabe N, Oshima Y, Konno C, Hikino H. Antihepatotoxic principles of Artemisia capillaris buds. Planta Medica 1984; 1: 8185.
  • 41
    Chang HM, Cheng YY, Chan YS, Choang KF. Active component from a Chinese composite prescription for the treatment of liver diseases. In: ChangHM, YeungHW, TsoW-W. et al., eds. Advances in Chinese medicinal materials research. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 1985: 221237.
  • 42
    Kiso Y, Suzuki Y, Konno C, Hikino H, Hashimoto I, Yagi Y. Application of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver lesion in mice for screening of liver protective crude drugs. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1982; 36: 238244.
  • 43
    Kimura Y, Okuda H, Okuda T, Hatano T, Agata I, Arichi S. Studies on the activities of tannins and related compounds from medicinal plants and drugs. VII. Effects of extracts of leaves of Artemisia species, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid on lipid metabolic injury in rats fed peroxidized oil. Chem Pharmacol Bull 1985; 33: 20282034.
  • 44
    Komiya T, Tsukui M, Oshio H. Studies on “Inchinko.” I. Capilla-risin, anew choleretic substance. Yakugaku Zasshi 1976; 96: 841854.
  • 45
    Okuno I, Uchida K, Nakamura M, Sakurawi K. Studies on choleretic constituents in Artemisia capillaris THUNB. Chem Pharmacol Bull 1988; 36: 769775.
  • 46
    Yamahara J, Kobayashi G, Matsuda H, Katayama T, Fujimura H. Vascular dilatory action of Artemisia capillaris bud extracts and their active constituent. J Ethnopharmacol 1989; 26: 129136.
  • 47
    Yamahara J, Kobayashi G, Matsuda H, Iwamoto M, Fujimura H. Vascular dilatory action of the Chinese cru de drug II. Effects of scoparone on calcium mobilization. Chem Pharmacol Bull 1989; 37: 485489.
  • 48
    Yamahara J, Kobayashi G, Matsuda H, Katayama T, Fujimura H. The effect of scoparone, a coumarin derivative isolated from the Chinese crude drug Artemisiae capillaris flos, on the heart. Chem Pharmacol Bull 1989; 37: 12971299.
  • 49
    Imai K. Studies on the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. III. Antifungal activity of the essential oil. (3). Structure of antifungal principles, capillin. Yakugaku Zasshi 1957; 76: 405408.
  • 50
    Kiso Y, Sasaki K, Oshima Y, Hikino H. Liver-protective drugs. 5. Validity of the oriental medicines. Part 42. Structure of arcapil-lin, an antihepatotoxic principle of Artemisia capillaris herbs. Heterocycles 1982; 19: 16151617.
  • 51
    Akahori A, Kagawa K, Okuno I. Determination of scoparone, capillarin and capillin in the crude drug “Inchinko.” Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1978; 32: 177184.
  • 52
    Miyazawa M, Kameoka H. The essential oil of Artemisia capillaris. Phytochemistry 1977; 16: 10541057.
  • 53
    Okuno I, Kagawa K, Noro Y, Namba T. Pharmacognostical studies on the crude drug Inchinko in Japan (VI). Seasonal variation in chemical constituents of Artemisia capillaris THUNB. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1983; 37: 199203.
  • 54
    Wang X, Saito K, Kano Y. On the evaluation of the preparation of Chinese medicinal prescriptions. VII. HPLC analysis of the components in Inchinkoto and Inchingoreisan. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1993; 47: 243248.