• 1
    Offensperger WB, Offensperger S, Walter E. In vivo inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication and gene expression by phosphorothioate modified antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. EMBO J 1993; 12: 12571262.
  • 2
    Wu GY, Wu CH. Specific inhibition of hepatitis B viral gene expression in vitro by targeted antisense oligonucleotides. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 1243612439.
  • 3
    Ashwell G, Morell A. Role of surface carbohydrates in the hepatic recognition and transport of circulating glycoproteins. Adv Enzymol 1974; 41: 99128.
  • 4
    Liang TJ, Makdisi WJ, Sun S, Hasegawa K, Zhang Y, Wands JR, Wu CH. et al. Targeted transfection and expression of hepatitis B viral DNA in human hepatoma cells. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 12411246.
  • 5
    Wu GY, Wu CH. Evidence for targeted gene delivery to Hep G2 cells in vitro. Biochemistry 1988; 27: 887892.
  • 6
    Findeis MA, Wu CH, Wu GY. Ligand-based carrier systems for delivery of DNA to hepatocytes. In: LeeYC, LeeRT. eds. Methods in enzymology. New York: Academic Press, 1994: 341350.
  • 7
    Panyim S, Chalkley R. High resolution acrylamide gel electrophoresis of histones. Arch Biochem Biophys 1969; 130: 337346.
  • 8
    Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Vol 2, Ed 2. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1989.
  • 9
    Wu GY, Wilson JM, Shalaby F, Grossman M, Shafritz DA, Wu CH. Receptor-mediated gene delivery in vivo: partial correction of genetic analbuminemia in Nagase rats. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 1433814342.
  • 10
    Sells MA, Chen M, Acs G. Production of hepatitis B virus particles in HepG2 cells transfected with cloned hepatitis B virus DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987; 84: 10051009.
  • 11
    Blum H, Galun E, Liang TJ, von Weizsaecker F, Wands JR. Naturally occurring missense mutation in the polymerase gene terminating hepatitis B replication. J Virol 1991; 65: 18361842.
  • 12
    Barnes WM. PCR amplification of up to 35-kb DNA with high fidelity and high yield from 1 bacteriophage templates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 22162220.
  • 13
    Melton DA, Krieg PA, Rebagliati MR, Maniatis T, Zinn K, Green MR. Efficient in vitro synthesis of biologically active RNA and RNA hybridization probes from plasmids containing a bacteriophage SP6 promoter. Nucl Acids Res 1984; 12: 70357056.
  • 14
    Chomczynski P, Sacci N. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 1987; 162: 156159.
  • 15
    Hollinger FB, Robinson WS. In: FieldsBN, KnipeDM. Fundamental virology, hepadnaviridae and their replication. New York: Raven Press, 1991: 1395.
  • 16
    Miller RH, Lee S-C, Liaw Y-F, Robinson WS. Hepatitis B viral DNA in infected human liver and in hepatocellular carcinoma. J Infect Dis 1985; 151: 10811092.
  • 17
    Kam W, Rail L, Smuckler E, Schmid R, Rutter WJ. Hepatitis B viral DNA in liver and serum of asymptomatic carriers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1982; 79: 75227526.
  • 18
    Chiou HC, Levine SM, Tangco MV, Robertson D, Kormis K, Wu CH, Wu GY. Enhanced resistance to nuclease degradation of nucleic acids complexed to asialoglycoprotein-polylysine carriers. Nucl Acids Res 1994; 22: 54395446.
  • 19
    O'Grady JG, Smith HM, Davies SE, Daniels HM, Donaldson PT, Tan KC, Portmann B. et al. Hepatitis B virus reinfection after orthotopic liver transplantation: serological and clinical implications. J Hepatol 1992; 14: 104111.