• 1
    Gordon S, Reddy KR, Schiff L, Schiff ER. Prolonged intrahepatic cholesta-sis secondary to acute hepatitis A. Arm Intern 1984; 101: 635637.
  • 2
    Poupon RE, Poupon R, Baikau B, UDCA-PBC Study Group. Ursodiol for the long-term treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 13421347.
  • 3
    Van de Water J, Fregeau D, Davis P, Ansari A, Danner AD, Leung P, Coppel R, et al. Autoantibodies of primary biliary cirrhosis recognize didh-yrolipoamide acetyltransferase and inhibit enzyme function. J Immunol 1988; 141: 23212324.
  • 4
    Popper H, Schaffner F. Nonsuppurative destructive chronic cholangitis and chronic hepatitis. In: PopperH, SchaffnerF., eds. Progress in liver disease. Vol3. New York: Grüne and Stratton, 1970, 336364.
  • 5
    Klö ppel G, Seifert G, Lindner H, Dammerniann R, Sack HJ, Berg PA. Histopathological features in mixed tyhpes of chronic aggressive hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Histol 1977; 373: 143160.
  • 6
    Geubel AP, Baggenstoss AH, Summerskill WHJ. Responses to treatment can differentiate chronic active liver disease with cholangitic features from the primary biliary cirrhosis syndrome. Gastroenterology 1976; 71: 444449.
  • 7
    Shouval D, Levij IS, Eliakim M. Chronic active hepatitis with cholestatic features. Am J Gastroenterol 1979; 72: 542550.
  • 8
    Okuno T, Seto Y, Okanoue T, Takino T. Chronic active hepatitis with histological features of primary biliary cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sei 1987; 32: 775779.
  • 9
    Brunner G, Klinge O. A cholangitis with antinuclear antibodies (immuno-cholangitis) resembling chronic non-sllppurative destructive cholangitis. Deutsche Med Wochenschr 1987; 112: 14541458.
  • 10
    Ben-Ari Z, Dhillon AP, Sherlock S. Autoimmune cholangiopathy: part of the spectrum of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1993; 18: 1015.
  • 11
    Michieletti P, Wanless IR, Katz A, Scheuer PJ, Yeaman SJ, Bassendine MF, Palmer JM, et al. Antimitochondrial antibody negative primary biliary cirrhosis: a distinct syndrome of autoimmune cholangitis. Gut 1994; 35: 260265.
  • 12
    Goodman Z, McNally PR, Davis DR, Ishak KO. Autoimmune cholangitis: a variant of primary biliary cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sei 1995; 40: 12321242.
  • 13
    Horsmans Y, Piret A, Brenard R, Rahier J, Geubel AP. Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis responsive to immunosuppressive therapy evolv-ing into a typical primary biliary cirrhosis syndrome: a case report. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 194198.
  • 14
    Doniach D, Walker JG. A unified concept of autoimmune hepatitis. Lancet 1969; 1: 813815.
  • 15
    Soloway RD, Summerskill WHJ, Baggenstoss AH, Geall MG, Gitnick GL, Elveback LR, Schoenfield LJ. Clinical, biochemical, and histological remis-sion of severe chronic active liver disease, a controlled study of treatments and early prognosis. Gastroenterology 1972; 63: 820833.
  • 16
    Heathcote J, Ross A, Sherlock S. A prospective controlled trial of azathio-prine in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1976; 70: 656660.
  • 17
    Gershwin ME, Rowley M, Vavis PA, Leung P, Coppel R, Mackay I. Molecu-lar biology of the 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes and antimitochon-drial antibodies. In: BoyerJL, OcknerRK, eds. Progress in liver diseases. Vol 10. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1992: 4761.
  • 18
    Gershwin ME, Coppel RL, Mackay IR. Primary biliary cirrhosis and mito-chondrial autoantigens. Insights from molecular biology. Hepatology 1988; 8: 147151.
  • 19
    Van de Water J, Surh CD, Leung PSC, Krams SM, Fregeau D, Davis P, Coppel R, et al. Molecular definition, autoepitopes, and enzymatic activi-ties of the mitochondrial autoantigens of primary biliary cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis 1989; 9: 132137.
  • 20
    Van de Water J, Cooper A, Surh CD, Coppel R, Danner D, Ansari A, Dickson R, et al. Detection of autoantibodies to the recombinant 74 kD and 52 kD mitochondrial autoantigens of primary biliary cirrhosis. New Engl J Med 1989; 320: 13771380.
  • 21
    Davis PA, Leung P, Manns M, Kaplan M, Munoz SJ, Gorin FA, Dickson ER, et al. Ml and M9 antibodies in the overlap syndrome of primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis epitopes and epiphenomena? Hepatology 1992; 16: 11281136.
  • 22
    Joplin R, Lindsay JG, Johnson GC, Strain A, Neuberger J. Membrane dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (E2) on human biliary epithelial cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. Lancet 1992; 339: 9394.
  • 23
    Van de Water J, Turchany J, Leung PSC, Lake J, Munoz S, Suhr CD, Coppel R, et al. Molecular mimicry in primary biliary cirrhosis. Evidence for biliary epithelial expression of a molecule cross-reactive with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 26532664.
  • 24
    Tsuneyama K, Van de Water J, Van Thiel D, Coppel R, Ruebner B, Naka-numa Y, Dickson ER, et al. Abnormal expression of PDC-E2 on the apical surface of biliary epithelial cells in patients with antimitochondrial anti-body-negative primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 1995; 22: 14401446.
  • 25
    Tsuneyama K, Van de Water J, Nakanuma Y, Cha S, Ansari A, Coppel R, Gerswhin ME. Human combinatorial autoantibodies and mouse mono-clonal antibodies to PDC-E2 produce abnormal apical staining of salivary glands in patients with co-existing primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome. Hepatology 1994; 20: 893898.
  • 26
    Lassoused K, Guilly MN, Andre C, Paintrand M, Dhumeux D, Danon F, Brouet J-C, et al. Autoantibodies to a 200 kD polypeptide(s) of the nuclear envelope: a new Serologie marker of primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Exp Immunol 1988; 74: 283288.
  • 27
    Lin F, Noyer CM, Ye Q, Courvalin JC, Worman H. Autoantibodies from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis recognize a region within the nu-cleoplasmic domain of inner nuclear membrane protein LBR. Hepatology 1996; 23: 5761.
  • 28
    Czaja AJ, Nishioka M, Morshed SA, Hachiya T. Patterns of nuclear immu-nofluorescence and reactivities to recombinant nuclear antigens in autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 200207.
  • 29
    Johnson PJ, McFarlane IG. Meeting report: International autoimmune hepatitis group. Hepatology 1993; 18: 9981005.
  • 30
    McFarlane IG. Clinical spectrum and heterogeneity of autoimmune hepatitis: an overview. In: Meyer zum BuschenfeldICH, ed. Immunology and liver. Dordrecht, Bostson, London: Klumer Academic Publishers, 1993: 179192.
  • 31
    Mackay IR, Gerswhin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis: current knowledge, perspectives, and future directions. Semin Liver Dis 1989; 9: 149157.
  • 32
    Czaja AJ, Manns MP, Homberger HA. Frequency and significance of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type l in adults with chronic active hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 12901295.
  • 33
    Philipp T, Durazzo M, Trautwein C, Alex B, Sträub P, Lamb JG, Johnson EF, et al. Recognition of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase by LKM-3 antibodies in chronic hepatitis D. Lancet 1994; 344: 578581.
  • 34
    Thung SN, Gerber MA. Differential diagnosis in pathology: liver disorders. 1995. New York: Igaku-Shoin.