SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    O'Grady JG, Smith HM, Davies SE, Daniels HM, Donaldson FT, Tan KG, Portmann B, et al. Hepatitis B virus reinfection after orthotopic liver transplantation. J Hepatol 1992; 14: 104111.
  • 2
    Davies SE, Portmann BC, O'Grady JG, Aldis PM, Chaggar K, Alexander GJM, Williams R. Hepatic histological findings after transplantation for chronic hepatitis B virus infection, including a unique pattern of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 13: 150157.
  • 3
    Carman WF, Jacyna MR, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, McGarvey MJ, Makris A, Thomas HC. Mutation preventing formation of hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Lancet 1989; 2: 588591.
  • 4
    Bonino F, Brunetto MR, Rizzetto M, Will H. Hepatitis B virus unable to secrete e antigen. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 11381141.
  • 5
    Carman WF, Fagan EA, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, Tassopoulos NC, Williams R, Thomas HC. Association of a precore genomic variant of HBV with fulminant hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 14: 219222.
  • 6
    Kosaka Y, Takase K, Kojima M, Shimizu M, Inoue K, Yoshiba M, Tanaka S, et al. Fulminant hepatitis B: induction by hepatitis B virus mutants defective in the precore region and incapable of encoding e antigen. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 10871094.
  • 7
    Omata M, Ehata T, Yokosuka O, Hosoda K, Ohto M. Mutations in the precore region of hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with fulminant and severe hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 16991704.
  • 8
    Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Akahane Y, Sugai Y, Yoshiba M, Moriyama K, Tanaka T, et al. Hepatitis B virus with mutations in the core promoter for an e antigen-negative phenotype in carriers with antibody to e antigen. J Virol 1994; 68: 81028110.
  • 9
    Sato S, Suzuki K, Akahane Y, Akamatsu K, Akiyama K, Yunomura K, Tsuda F, et al. Hepatitis B virus strains with mutations in the core promoter in patients with fulminant hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 241248.
  • 10
    Carman W, Thomas H, Domingo E. Viral genetic variation: hepatitis B virus as a clinical example. Lancet 1993; 341: 349353.
  • 11
    Ehata T, Omata M, Yokosuka O, Hosoda K, Ohto M. Variations in codons 84–101. in the core nucleotide sequence correlate with hepatocellular injury in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Invest 1992; 89: 332338.
  • 12
    Carman WF, Thursz M, Hadziyannis S, McLntyre G, Colnian K, Gioustoz A, Fattovich G, et al. Hepatitis B e antigen negative chronic active hepatitis: hepatitis B virus core mutations occur predominantly in known anti-genie determinants. J Viral Hepatitis 1995; 2: 7784.
  • 13
    Aye TT, Uchida T, Becker SO, Hirashima M, Shikata T, Komine F, Moriyama M, et al. Variations of hepatitis B virus precore/core gene sequence in acute and fulminant hepatitis B. Dig Dis Sci 1994; 39: 12811287.
  • 14
    Akarca US, Lok ASF. Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus core gene mutations. Hepatology 1995; 22: 5060.
  • 15
    Angus P, Richards M, Bowden S, Ireton J, Sinclair R, Jones B, Locarnini S. Combination chemotherapy controls severe post-liver transplant recurrence of hepatitis B virus infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1993; 8: 353357.
  • 16
    Angus PW, Locarnini SA, McCaughan GW, Jones RM, McMillan JS, Bowden DS. Hepatitis B virus precore mutant infection is associated with severe recurrent disease after liver transplantation. Hepatology 1995; 21: 1418.
  • 17
    Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Sakugawa H, Sastrosoewignjo RI, Imai M, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M. Typing hepatitis B virus by homology in nucleotide sequence: comparison of surface antigen subtypes. J Gen Virol 1988; 69: 25752583.
  • 18
    Li J-S, Tong S-P, Wen Y-M, Vitvitski L, Zhang Q, Trepo C. Hepatitis B virus genotype A rarely circulates as an HBe-minus mutant: possible contribution of a single nucleotide in the precore region. J Virol 1993; 67: 54025410.
  • 19
    Valenzuela P, Quiroga M, Zaldivar J, Gray P, Rutter WJ. The nucleotide sequence of the hepatitis B genome and the identification of the major viral genes. In: FieldsB, JaenischR, FoxCF, eds. Animal virus genetics. New York: Academic Press, 1980: 5770.
  • 20
    Ono Y, Onda H, Sasada H, Igarashi K, Sugino Y, Nishioka, K. The complete nucleotide sequences of the cloned hepatitis B virus DNA: subtype adr and adw. Nucleic Acids Res 1983; 11: 17471757.
  • 21
    Estacio RC, Chavez CC, Okamoto H, Lingao AL, Reyes MT, Domingo E, Mayumi M. Nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis B virus genome of subtype adw isolated from a Philippine: comparison with the reported three genomes of the same subtype. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1988; 3: 215222.
  • 22
    Sastrosoewignjo RI, Omi S, Okamoto H, Mayumi M, Rustam M, Sujudi R. The complete nucleotide sequence of an HBV DNA clone of subtype adw (pMND122) from Menado in Sulawesi Island Indonesia. ICMR Ann 1987; 7: 5160.
  • 23
    Kobayashi M, Koike K. Complete nucleotide sequence of hepatitis B virus DNA of subtype adr and its conserved gene organization. Gene 1984; 30: 227232.
  • 24
    Norder H, Courouce A-M, Magnius LO. Complete genomes, phylogenetic relatedness, and structural proteins of six strains of the hepatitis B virus, four of which represent two new genotypes. Virology 1994; 198: 489503.
  • 25
    Bichko V, Pushko P, Dreilina D, Pumpen P, Grens E. Subtype ayw variant of hepatitis B virus DNA primary structure analysis. FEBS Lett 1985; 185: 208212.
  • 26
    Galibert F, Mandart E, Fitoussi F, Tiollais P, Charney P. Nucleotide sequence of hepatitis B virus genome (subtype ayw) cloned in E. coli. Nature (London) 1979; 281: 646650.
  • 27
    Yuh C-H, Chang Y-L, Ting L-P. Transcriptional regulation of precore and pregenomic RNAs of hepatitis B virus. J Virol 1992; 66: 40734084.
  • 28
    Chen I-H, Huang C-J, Ting L-P. Overlapping initiator and TATA box functions in the basal core promoter of hepatitis B virus. J Virol 1995; 69: 36473657.
  • 29
    Baumert TF, Rogers SA, Hasegawa K, Liang TJ. HBV core promoter mutations cause enhanced viral replication in association with fulminant hepatitis [Abstract]. Hepatology 1995; 22: 260A.
  • 30
    Junker-Niepmann M, Bartenschlager R, Schaller H. A short cis-acting sequence is required for hepatitis B virus pregenome encapsidation and sufficient for packaging of foreign RNA. EMBO J 1990; 9: 33893396.
  • 31
    Lok ASF, Akarca U, Greene S. Mutations in the pre-core region of hepatitis B virus serve to enhance the stability of the secondary structure of the pre-genome encapsidation signal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 40774081.
  • 32
    Rodriguez-Frias F, Buti M, Jardi R, Cotrina M, Viladomiu L, Esteban R, Guardia J. Hepatitis B virus infection: precore mutants and its relation to viral genotypes and core mutations. Hepatology 1995; 22: 16411647.
  • 33
    Wang G-H, Seeger C. Novel mechanism for reverse transcription in hepatitis B viruses. J Virol 1993; 67: 65076512.
  • 34
    Tong S-P, Li J-S, Vitvitski L, Trepo C. Replication capacities of natural and artificial precore stop codon mutants of hepatitis B virus: relevance of pregenome encapsidation signal. Virology 1992; 191: 237245.
  • 35
    Nassal M, Rieger A, Steinau O. Topological analysis of the hepatitis B virus core particle by cysteine-cysteine cross-linking. J Mol Biol 1992; 225: 10131025.
  • 36
    Nassal M, Rieger A. An intramolecular disulfide bridge between Cys-7 and Cys61 determines the structure of the secretory core gene product (e antigen) of hepatitis B virus. J Virol 1993; 67: 43074315.
  • 37
    Liao W, Ou J-H. Phosphorylation and nuclear localisation of the hepatitis B virus core protein: Significance of serine in the three repeated SPRRR motifs. J Virol 1995; 69: 10251029.
  • 38
    Hatton T, Zhou S, Standring DN. RNA-and DNA-binding activities in hepatitis B virus capsid protein: a model for their roles in viral replication. J Virol 1992; 66: 52325241.
  • 39
    Eckhardt SG, Milich DR, McLachlan A. Hepatitis B virus core antigen has two nuclear localisation sequences in the arginine-rich carboxyl terminus. J Virol 1991; 65: 575582.
  • 40
    Salfeld J, Pfaff E, Noah M, Schaller H. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus. J Virol 1989; 63: 798808.
  • 41
    Colucci G, Beazer Y, Cantaluppi C, Tackney C. Identification of a major hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) determinant by using synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol 1988; 141: 43764380.
  • 42
    Bertoletti A, Chisari FV, Penna A, Guilhot S, Galati L, Missale G, Fowler P, et al. Definition of a minimal optimal cytotoxic T-cell epitope within the hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid protein. J Virol 1993; 67: 23762380.
  • 43
    Missale G, Redeker A, Person J, Fowler P, Guilhot S, Schlicht HJ, Ferrari C, et al. HLA-A31-and HLA-Aw68-restricted cytotoxic T cell responses to a single hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid epitope during acute viral hepatitis. J Exp Med 1993; 177: 751762.
  • 44
    Ferrari C, Bertoletti A, Penna A, Cavalli A, Valli A, Missale G, Pilli M, et al. Identification of immunodominant T cell epitopes of the hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid antigen. J Clin Invest 1991; 88: 214222.
  • 45
    Dienes HP, Gerken G, Goergen B, Heermann K, Gerlich W, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH. Analysis of the precore DNA sequence and detection of precore antigen in liver specimens from patients with anti-hepatitis B e-positive chronic hepatitis. Hepatology 1995; 21: 17.
  • 46
    Lamberts C, Nassal M, Velhagen I, Zentgraf H, Schroder CH. Precoremediated inhibition of hepatitis B virus progeny DNA synthesis. J Virol 1993; 67: 37563762.
  • 47
    Laskus T, Rakela J, Nowicki MJ, Persing DH. Hepatitis B virus core promoter sequence analysis in fulminant and chronic hepatitis B. Gastro-enterology 1995; 109: 16181623.
  • 48
    Yuan TTT, Faruqi A, Shih JWK, Shih C. The mechanism of natural occurrence of two closely linked HBV precore predominant mutations. Virology 1995; 211: 144156.
  • 49
    Lau JYN, Bain VG, Davies SE, O'Grady JG, Alberti A, Alexander GJM, Williams R. High-level expression of hepatitis B viral antigens in fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 956962.
  • 50
    Ogata N, Miller RH, Ishak KG, Purcell RH. The complete nucleotide sequence of a pre-core mutant of hepatitis B virus implicated in fulminant hepatitis and its biological characterization in chimpanzees. Virology 1993; 194: 263276.
  • 51
    Bertoletti A, Sette A, Chisari FV, Penna A, Levrero M, De Carli M, Fiaccadori F, et al. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T-cells. Nature 1994; 369: 407410.