We have identified B10, a plasma membrane protein previously defined by a monoclonal antibody, as an alkaline phosphodiesterase I (APDE) expressed in the plasma membrane of rat hepatocytes and enterocytes, with a restricted apical distribution. B10 complementary DNA (cDNA) was cloned from a rat intestinal library screened with a polyclonal antibody directed to the hepatic protein. Two distinct B10 clones with an open reading frame of 2,625 bp were obtained that differed only by 12 bases in the coding region. One B10 clone had a single base difference with gp130RB13-6 cDNA, which was recently cloned in rat fetal brain. B10/gp130RB13-6 had 50% identity at the amino acid level with the plasma cell antigen PC-1, an APDE cloned in the mouse and in human. Anti-B10 antibodies immunoprecipitated 34% of the APDE activity in liver plasma membranes and over 95% of the APDE activity in intestinal cells. Most of the remaining activity in hepatocytes (44%) could be immunoprecipitated by antibodies directed to PC-1. APDE activity immunoprecipitated with anti-B10 antibodies was found in the apical rat liver plasma membrane fractions on a sucrose gradient whereas most of the remaining APDE activity was associated with the basolateral fractions, which contained PC-1. By immunofluorescence, B10 was localized to the apical surfaces of hepatocytes and enterocytes whereas PC-1 was present on the basolateral surfaces of hepatocytes. B10/gp130RB13-6 and rat PC-1 are a unique example of distinct molecules having similar enzymatic activity but different apical/basolateral location, and possibly different functions.