• 1
    Lee SS. Cardiac abnormalities in liver cirrhosis. West J Med 1989; 151: 530535.
  • 2
    Abelmann WH, Kowalski HJ, McNeely WF. The hemodynamic responseto exercise in patients with Laennec's cirrhosis. J Clin Invest 1955; 34: 690695.
  • 3
    Henriksen HJ, Ring-Larsen H, Christensen NJ. Autonomic nervous function in liver disease. In: BomzonA, BlendisLM, ed. Cardiovascular Complications of Liver Disease. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1989: 6379.
  • 4
    Lee SS, Marty J, Mantz J, Samain E, Braillon A, Lebrec D. Desensitization of myocardial β-adrenergic receptors in cirrhotic rats. Hepatology 1990; 12: 481485.
  • 5
    Ma Z, Lee SS. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy: getting to the heart of the matter. Hepatology 1996; 24: 451459.
  • 6
    Ramond MJ, Comay E, Lebrec D. Alterations in isoprenaline sensitivity in patients with cirrhosis: evidence of abnormality of the sympathetic nervous activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1986; 21: 191196.
  • 7
    Ma Z, Meddings JB, Lee SS. Membrane physical properties determine cardiac β-adrenergic receptor function in cirrhotic rats. Am J Physiol 1994; 267: G87G93.
  • 8
    Limas CJ, Guiha NH, Lekagul O, Cohn JN. Impaired left ventricular function in alcoholic cirrhosis with ascites: ineffectiveness of ouabain. Circulation 1974; 49: 755760.
  • 9
    Lumlertgul D, Boonyaprapa S, Bunnachak D, Thanachaikun N, Praisont-arangkul OA, Phornphutkul K, Keoplung M. The jaundiced heart: evidence for blunted response to positive inotropic stimulation. Renal Fail 1991; 13: 1522.
  • 10
    Lee SS, Sharkey KA. Capsaicin treatment blocks development of hyperki-netic circulation in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic rats. Am J Physiol 1993; 264: G868G873.
  • 11
    Gillespie JS, Muir TC. A method for stimulating the complete sympathetic outflow from spinal cord to blood vessels in the pithed rat. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 1967; 30: 7887.
  • 12
    Bradford M. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of micro-gram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976; 72: 248254.
  • 13
    Horackova M, Robinson B, Wilkinson M. Characterization and agonist regulation of muscarinic ([3H] N-Methyl Scopolamine) receptors in isolated ventricular myocytes from rat. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1990; 22: 12731283.
  • 14
    Deighton NM, Motomura S, Borguez D, Zerkowski HR, Doetsch N, Brodde OE. Muscarinic cholinoceptors in the human heart: demonstration, sub-classification, and distribution. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 1990; 341: 1421.
  • 15
    Wilkinson M, Horackova M, Giles A. Reduction of ventricular M2 muscarinic receptors in cardiomyopathic hamster (CHF 147) at the necrotic stage of the myopathy. Pflugers Arch 1994; 426: 516523.
  • 16
    Bohm M, Gierschik P, Knorr A, Larisch K, Weismann K, Erdmann E. Role of altered G-protein expression in the regulation of myocardial adenylate cyclase activity and force of contraction in spontaneous hypertensive cardiomyopathy in rats. J Hypertens 1992; 10: 11151128.
  • 17
    Chidiac P, Nagy A, Sole MJ, Wells JW. Inefficient muscarinic transduction in cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1991; 23: 12551269.
  • 18
    Horackova M, Beresewicz A, Rowden G, Wilkinson M. Neurohumoral regulation of excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular myocytes from cardiomyopathic hamsters. Cardiovasc Res 1991; 25: 10231034.
  • 19
    Fu M, Matoba M, Liang QM, Sjogren KG, Hjalmarson A. Properties of G protein modulated receptor-adenylyl cyclase system in myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with adriamycin. Int J Cardiol 1994; 44: 918.
  • 20
    Kelbaek Y, Eriksen J, Brynjolf I, Raboel A, Lund JO, Munck O, Bonnevie O, et al. Cardiac performance in patients with asymptomatic alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. Am J Cardiol 1984; 54: 852855.
  • 21
    Limas CJ, Guiha NH, Lekagul O, Cohn JN. Impaired left ventricular function in alcoholic cirrhosis with ascites: ineffectiveness of ouabain. Circulation 1974; 49: 755760.
  • 22
    Bernardi M, Rubboli A, Trevisani F, Cancellieri C, Baraldini M, Gasbarrini G. Reduced cardiovascular responsiveness to exercise-induced sympatho-adrenergic stimulation in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1991; 12: 207216.
  • 23
    Finnucci G, Desideri A, Sacerdoti D, Bolognesi M, Merkel C, Angeli P, Gatta A. Left ventricular diastolic function in liver cirrhosis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 279284.
  • 24
    Abergel A, Braillon A, Caudin C, Kleber C, Lebrec D. Persistence of a hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhotic rats following removal of the sympathetic nervous system. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 656660.
  • 25
    Caulfield MP. Muscarinic receptors-characterization, coupling and function. Pharmacol Ther 1993; 58: 319379.
  • 26
    Loffelholz K, Pappano AJ. The parasympathetic neuroeffector junction of the heart. Pharmacol Rev 1985; 37: 124.
  • 27
    Ma Z, Miyamoto A, Lee SS. Role of altered β-adrenergic signal transduction in the pathogenesis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in rats. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 11911198.
  • 28
    Feilds JZ, Roeske WR, Morkin E, Yamamura HI. Cardiac muscarinic cho-linergic receptors, biochemical identification and characterization. J Biol Chem 1978; 253: 32513258.
  • 29
    Grose RD, Nolan J, Dillon JF, Errington M, Hannan WJ, Bouchier IAD, Hayes PC. Exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction in alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1995; 26: 326332.