• 1
    Davies SE, Portmann BC, O'Grady JG, Aldis PM, Chaggar K, Alexander GJ, Williams R. Hepatic histological findings after transplantation for chronic hepatitis B virus infection, including a unique pattern of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 13: 150157.
  • 2
    Phillips MJ, Cameron R, Flowers MA, Blendis LM, Greig PD, Wanless I, Sherman M, et al. Posttransplant recurrent hepatitis B viral liver disease. Viral-burden, steatoviral, and fibroviral hepatitis B. Am J Pathol 1992; 140: 12951308.
  • 3
    Mason AL, Wick M, White HM, Benner KG, Lee RG, Regenstein F, Riely CA, et al. Increased hepatocyte expression of hepatitis B virus transcription in patients with features of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 237244.
  • 4
    Blum HE. Variants of hepatitis B, C and D viruses: molecular biology and clinical significance. Digestion 1995; 56: 8595.
  • 5
    Carman WF, Fagan EA, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, Tassopoulos NC, Williams R, Thomas HC. Association of a precore genomic variant of hepatitis B virus with fulminant hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 14: 219222.
  • 6
    Kojima M, Shimizu M, Tsuchimochi T, Koyasu M, Tanaka S, Iizuka H, Tanaka T, et al. Posttransfusion fulminant hepatitis B associated with precore-defective HBV mutants. Vox Sang 1991; 60: 3439.
  • 7
    Kosaka Y, Takase K, Kojima M, Shimizu M, Inoue K, Yoshiba M, Tanaka S, et al. Fulminant hepatitis B: induction by hepatitis B virus mutants defective in the precore region and incapable of encoding e antigen. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 10871094.
  • 8
    Liang TJ, Hasegawa K, Rimon N, Wands JR, Ben Porath E. A hepatitis B virus mutant associated with an epidemic of fulminant hepatitis. N Engl JMed 1991; 324: 17051709.
  • 9
    Omata M, Ehata T, Yokosuka O, Hosoda K, Ohto M. Mutations in the precore region of hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with fulminant and severe hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 16991704.
  • 10
    Terazawa S, Kojima M, Yamanaka T, Yotsumoto S, Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Miyakawa Y, et al. Hepatitis B virus mutants with precore-region defects in two babies with fulminant hepatitis and their mothers positive for antibody to hepatitis B e antigen. Pediatric Res 1991; 29: 59.
  • 11
    Yotsumoto S, Kojima M, Shoji I, Yamamoto K, Okamoto H, Mishiro S. Fulminant hepatitis related to transmission of hepatitis B variants with precore mutations between spouses. Hepatology 1992; 16: 3135.
  • 12
    Aye TT, Uchida T, Becker SO, Hirashima M, Shikata T, Komine F, Moriyama M, et al. Variations of hepatitis B virus precore/core gene sequence in acute and fulminant hepatitis B. Dig Dis Sci 1994; 39: 12811287.
  • 13
    Kaneko M, Uchida T, Moriyama M, Arakawa Y, Shikata T, Gotoh K, Mima S. Probable implication of mutations of the X open reading frame in the onset of fulminant hepatitis B. J Med Virol 1995; 47: 204208.
  • 14
    Sato S, Suzuki K, Akahane Y, Akamatsu K, Akiyama K, Yunomura K, Tsuda F, et al. Hepatitis B virus strains with mutations in the core promoter in patients with fulminant hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 241248.
  • 15
    Fang JW, Tung FY, Davis GL, Dolson DJ, van Thiel DH, Lau JY. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in a transplant recipient with hepatitis B virus precore mutant. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 901904.
  • 16
    Chen CH, Chen PJ, Chu JS, Yeh KH, Lai MY, Chen DS. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in a hepatitis B surface antigen carrier after renal transplantation. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 15141518.
  • 17
    McIvor C, Morton J, Bryant A, Cooksley WG, Durrant S, Walker N. Fatal reactivation of precore mutant hepatitis B virus associated with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis after bone marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121: 274275.
  • 18
    Angus PW, Locarnini SA, McCaughan GW, Jones RM, McMillan JS, Bowden DS. Hepatitis B virus precore mutant infection is associated with severe recurrent disease after liver transplantation. Hepatology 1995; 21: 1418.
  • 19
    Booth JC, Goldin RD, Brown JL, Karayiannis P, Thomas HC. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in a renal transplant recipient associated with the hepatitis B virus precore mutant. J Hepatol 1995; 22: 500503.
  • 20
    Yoshiba M, Sekiyama K, Sugata F, Okamoto H, Yamamoto K, Yotsumoto S. Reactivation of precore mutant hepatitis B virus leading to fulminant hepatic failure following cytotoxic treatment. Dig Dis Sci 1992; 37: 12531259.
  • 21
    Sterneck M, Günther S, Santantonio T, Fischer L, Broelsch CE, Greten H, Will H. Hepatitis B virus genomes of patients with fulminant hepatitis do not share a specific mutation. Hepatology 1996; 24: 300306.
  • 22
    Brunetto MR, Stemler M, Schödel F, Will H, Ottobrelli A, Rizetto M, Verme G, et al. Identification of HBV variants which cannot produce precore derived HBeAg and may be responsible for severe hepatitis. Ital J Gastroenterol 1989; 21: 151154.
  • 23
    Carman WF, Jacyna MR, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, McGarvey MJ, Makris A, Thomas HC. Mutation preventing formation of hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Lancet 1989; 2: 588591.
  • 24
    Naoumov NV, Schneider R, Grotzinger T, Jung MC, Miska S, Pape GR, Will H. Precore mutant hepatitis B virus infection and liver disease. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 538543.
  • 25
    Tur-Kaspa R, Klein A, Aharonson S. Hepatitis B Virus precore mutants are identical in carriers from various ethnic origins and are associated with a range of liver disease severity. Hepatology 1992; 16: 13381342.
  • 26
    Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Akahane Y, Sugai Y, Yoshiba M, Moriyama K, Tanaka T, et al. Hepatitis B virus with mutations in the core promoter for an e antigen-negative phenotype in carriers with antibody to e antigen. J Virol 1994; 68: 81028110.
  • 27
    Moriyama K, Takada T, Tsutsumi Y, Fukada K, Ishibashi H, Niho Y, Maeda Y. Mutations in the trans criptional regulatory region of the precore and core/pregenome of a hepatitis B virus with defective HBeAg production. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 1994; 85: 314322.
  • 28
    Laskus T, Rakela J, Nowicki MJ, Persing DH. Hepatitis B virus core promoter sequence analysis in fulminant and chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 16181623.
  • 29
    von Weizsäacker F, Pult I, Geiss K, Wirth S, Blum HE. Selective transmission of variant genomes from mother to infant in neonatal fulminant hepatitis B. Hepatology 1995; 21: 813.
  • 30
    Blum HE, Galun E, Liang TJ, von Weizsäcker F, Wands JR. Naturally occurring missense mutation in the polymerase gene terminating hepatitis B virus replication. J Virol 1991; 65: 18361842.
  • 31
    Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Sakugawa H, Sastrosoewignjo RI, Imai M, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M. Typing hepatitis B virus by homology in nucleotide sequence: comparison of surface antigen subtypes. J Gen Virol 1988; 69: 25752583.
  • 32
    Berger J, Hauber J, Hauber R, Geiger R, Cullen BR. Secreted placental alkaline phosphatase: a powerful new quantitative indicator of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Gene 1988; 66: 110.
  • 33
    Cereghini S, Blumenfeld M, Yaniv M. A liver-specific factor essential for albumin transcription differs between differentiated and dedifferentiated rat hepatoma cells. Genes Dev 1988; 2: 957974.
  • 34
    Chouard T, Blumenfeld M, Bach I, Vandekerckhove J, Cereghini S, Yaniv M. A distal dimerization domain is essential for DNA-binding by the atypical HNF1 homeodomain. Nucl Acids Res 1990; 18: 58535863.
  • 35
    Blumenfeld M, Maury M, Chouard T, Yaniv M, Condamine H. Hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) shows a wider distribution than products of its known target genes in developing mouse. Development 1991; 113: 589599.
  • 36
    Sourdive DJ, Chouard T, Yaniv M. The HNF1 C–terminal domain contributes to transcriptional activity and modulates nuclear localisation. Comptes Rendus de 1 Academie des Sciences – Serie lii, Sciences de la Vie 1993; 316: 385394.
  • 37
    Estacio RC, Chavez CC, Okamoto H, Lingao AL, Reyes MT, Domingo E, Mayumi M. Nucleotide sequence fo a hepatitis B virus genome of subtype adw isolated from a Philippine: Comparison with the reported three genomes of the same subtype. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1988; 3: 215222.
  • 38
    Feitelson M, Lega L, Guo J, Resti M, Rossi ME, Azzari C, Blumberg BS, et al. Pathogenesis of posttransfusion viral hepatitis in children with beta–thalassemia. Hepatology 1994; 19: 558568.
  • 39
    Kew MC. Do mutant woodchuck hepatitis viruses play a role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis? Res Virol 1993; 144: 293296.
  • 40
    Vaudin M, Wolstenholme AJ, Tsiquaye KN, Zuckerman AJ, Harrison TJ. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a hepatitis B virus isolated from a naturally infected chimpanzee. J Gen Virol 1988; 69: 13831389.
  • 41
    Norder H, Courouce AM, Magnius LO. Complete genomes, phylogenetic relatedness, and structural proteins of six strains of the hepatitis B virus, four of which represent two new genotypes. Virology 1994; 198: 489503.
  • 42
    Uchida T, Gotoh K, Shikata T. Complete nucleotide sequences and the characteristics of two hepatitis B virus mutants causing serologically negative acute or chronic hepatitis B. J Med Virol 1995; 45: 247252.
  • 43
    Ono Y, Onda H, Sasada R, Igarashi K, Sugino Y, Nishioka K. The complete nucleotide sequences of the cloned hepatitis B virus DNA; subtype adr and adw. Nucl Acids Res 1983; 11: 17471757.
  • 44
    Minami M, Okanoue T, Nakajima E, Yasui K, Kagawa K, Kashima K. Significance of pre-S region-defective hepatitis B virus that emerged during exacerbation of chronic type B hepatitis. Hepatology 1993; 17: 558563.
  • 45
    Tran A, Kremsdorf D, Capel F, Housset C, Dauguet C, Petit MA, Bréchot C. Emergence of and takeover by hepatitis B virus (HBV) with rearrangements in the pre–S/S and pre–C/C genes during chronic HBV infection. J Virol 1991; 65: 35663574.
  • 46
    Nakajima E, Minami M, Ochiya T, Kagawa K, Okanoue T. PreSl deleted variants of hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol 1994; 20: 329335.
  • 47
    Fiordalisi G, Ghiotto F, Castelnuovo F, Primi D, Cariani E. Analysis of the hepatitis B virus genome and immune response in HBsAg, anti–HBs positive chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol 1994; 20: 487493.
  • 48
    Moriyama K, Nakajima E, Hohjoh H, Asayama R, Okochi K Immunoselected hepatitis B virus mutant. Lancet 1991; 337: 125.
  • 49
    Lai ME, Melis A, Mazzoleni AP, Farci P, Balestrieri A. Sequence analysis of hepatitis B virus genome of a new mutant of ayw subtype isolated in Sardinia. Nucl Acids Res 1991; 19: 5078.
  • 50
    Fernholz D, Galle PR, Stemler M, Brunetto M, Bonino F, Will H. Infectious hepatitis B virus variant defective in pre–S2 protein expression in a chronic carrier. Virology 1993; 194: 137148.
  • 51
    Gerken G, Kremsdorf D, Capel F, Petit MA, Dauguet C, Manns MP, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH, et al. Hepatitis B defective virus with rearrangements in the preS gene during chronic HBV infection. Virology 1991; 183: 555565.
  • 52
    Santantonio T, Jung MC, Schneider R, Fernholz D, Milella M, Monno L, Pastore G, et al. Hepatitis B virus genomes that cannot synthesize pre-S2 proteins occur frequently and as dominant virus populations in chronic carriers in Italy. Virology 1992; 188: 948952.
  • 53
    Melegari M, Bruno S, Wands JR. Properties of hepatitis B virus pre-Sl deletion mutants. Virology 1994; 199: 292300.
  • 54
    Yamamoto K, Horikita M, Tsuda F, Itoh K, Akahane Y, Yotsumoto S, Okamoto H, et al. Naturally occurring escape mutants of hepatitis B virus with various mutations in the S gene in carriers seropositive for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. J Virol 1994; 68: 26712676.
  • 55
    Okamoto H, Yano K, Nozaki Y, Matsui A, Miyazaki H, Yamamoto K, Tsuda F, et al. Mutations within the S gene of hepatitis B virus transmitted from mothers to babies immunized with hepatitis B immune globulin and vaccine. Pediatric Res 1992; 32: 264268.
  • 56
    Takada S, Tsuchida N, Kobayashi M, Koike K Disruption of the function of tumor–suppressor gene p53 by the hepatitis B virus X protein and hepatocarcinogenesis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1995; 121: 593601.
  • 57
    Yen TSB. Regulation of hepatitis B virus gene expression. Semin Virol 1993; 4: 3342.
  • 58
    Ferrari C, Bertoletti A, Penna A, Cavalli A, Valli A, Missale G, Pilli M, et al. Identification of immunodominant T cell epitopes of the hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid antigen. J Clin Invest 1991; 88: 214222.
  • 59
    Raney AK, Easton AJ, McLachlan A. Characterization of the minimal elements of the hepatitis B virus large surface antigen promoter. J Gen Virol 1994; 75: 26712679.
  • 60
    Lilienbaum A, Crescenzo Chaigne B, Sail AA, Pillot J, Elfassi E. Binding of nuclear factors to functional domains of the duck hepatitis B virus enhancer. J Virol 1993; 67: 61926200.
  • 61
    Fourel G, Riengeisen F, Flajolet M, Tronche F, Pontoglio M, Tiollais P, Buendia M–A. The HNFl/HNF4–Dependent We2 Element of Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Controls Viral Replication and Can Activate the N–myc2 Promoter. J Virol 1996; 70: 571583.
  • 62
    Laskus T, Rakela J, Tong MJ, Nowicki MJ, Mosley JW, Persing DH. Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus mutants with deletions in the core promoter region. J Hepatol 1994; 20: 837841.
  • 63
    Laskus T, Rakela J, Steers JL, Wiesner RH, Persing DH. Precore and contiguous regions of hepatitis B virus in liver transplantation for end–stage hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 17741780.
  • 64
    Günther S, Piwon N, Iwanska A, Schilling R, Meisel H, Will H. Type, prevalence and significance of core promoter/ enhan er II mutations in hepatitis B viruses from imunosuppressed patients with severe liver disease. J Virol 1996; 70: 83188331.
  • 65
    Chisari FV. Hepatitis B Virus transgenic mice: insights into the virus and the disease. Hepatology 1995; 22: 13161325.
  • 66
    Ehata T, Omata WL, Chuang O, Yokosuka Y, Ito K, Hosoda K, Ohto M: Mutations in core nucleotide sequence of hepatitis B virus correlate with severe liver damage. In: NishiokaH, SuzukiH, MishiroS, OdaT, eds. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, 1994: 277282.
  • 67
    Ackrill AM, Naoumov NV, Lau JYN, O'Grady J, Portmann B, Eddleston ALWF, Williams R. Molecular changes in hepatitis B virus (HBV) core gene in liver graft recipients and association with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH)[Abstract]. Hepatology 1992; 16: 49A.
  • 68
    Chisari FV, Ferrari C. Hepatitis B Virus immunopathology. Springer Seminars in Immunopathology 1995; 17: 261281.