SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Choo Q, Kuo G, Weiner AJ, Overby LR, Bradley DW, Houghton M. Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 1989; 244: 359362.
  • 2
    Saito I, Miyamura T, Ohbayashi A, Harada H, Katyama T, Kikuchi S, Watanabe Y, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 65476549.
  • 3
    Choo Q, Richman KH, Han JH, Berger K, Lee C, Dong C, Gallegos C, et al. Genetic organization and diversity of the hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 24512455.
  • 4
    Rice CM. Flaviviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: FieldsBN, KnipeDM, HowleyPM, et al., eds. Fields Virology, 3rd edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996:931–959.5.
  • 5
    Francki RIB, Fauquet CM, Knudson DL, Brown F. Classification and nomenclature of viruses: fifth report of the international commitee on taxonomy of viruses. Arch Virol 1991; 2:(suppl) 223.
  • 6
    Simmonds PE, Alberti A, Alter HJ, Bonino F, Bradley DW, Brechot C, Brouwer JT, et al. A proposed system for the nomenclature of hepatitis C viral genotypes. Hepatology 1994; 19: 13211324.
  • 7
    Bukh J, Purcell RH, Miller RH. Sequence analysis of the core gene of 14 hepatitis C virus genotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 82398243.
  • 8
    Bukh J, Purcell RH, Miller RH. At least 12 genotypes of hepatitis C virus predicted by sequence analysis of the putative E1 gene of isolates collected worldwide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90: 82348238.
  • 9
    Simmonds PE, Holmes C, Cha T-A, Chan S-W, McOmish F, Irvine B, Beall E, et al. Classification of hepatitis C virus into six major genotypes and a series of subtypes by phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 region. J Gen Virol 1993; 74: 23912399.
  • 10
    Han JH, Shyamala V, Richman KH, Brauer MJ, Irvine B, Urdea MS, Tekamp-Olson P, et al. Characterization of the terminal regions of hepatitis C viral RNA: identification of conserved sequences in the 5′ untranslated region and poly (A) tails at the 3′ end. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 17111715.
  • 11
    Kolykhalov AA, Feinstone SM, Rice CM. Identification of a highly conserved sequence element at the 3′ terminus of hepatitis C virus genome RNA. J Virol 1996; 70: 33633371.
  • 12
    Tanaka T, Kato N, Cho MJ, Sugiyama K, Shimotohno K. Structure of the 3′ terminus of the hepatitis C virus genome. J Virol 1996; 70: 33073312.
  • 13
    Kato N, Hijikata M, Ootsuyama Y, Nakagawa M, Ohkoshi S, Sugimura T, Shimotohno K. Molecular cloning of the human hepatitis C virus genome from Japanese patients with non-A, non-B hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990; 87: 95249528.
  • 14
    Takamizawa A, Mori C, Fuke I, Manabe S, Murakami S, Fujita J, Onishi E, et al. Structure and organization of the hepatitis C virus genome isolated from human carriers. J Virol 1991; 65: 11051113.
  • 15
    Hijikata M, Kato N, Ootsuyama Y, Nakagawa M, Shimotohno K. Gene mapping of the putative structural region of the hepatitis C virus genome by in vitro processing analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 55475551.
  • 16
    Grakoui A, Wychowski C, Lin C, Feinstone SM, Rice CM. Expression and identification of hepatitis C virus polyprotein cleavage products. J Virol 1993; 67: 13851395.
  • 17
    Chen P-J, Lin M-H, Tai K-F, Liu P-C, Lin C-J, Chen D-S. The Taiwanese hepatitis C virus genome: sequence determination and mapping of the 5′ terminal of viral genomic and antigenomic RNA. Virology 1992; 188: 102113.
  • 18
    Brinton MA, Dispoto JH. Sequence and secondary structure analysis of the 5′ terminal region of flavivirus genome RNA. Virology 1988; 162: 290299.
  • 19
    Heinz FX. Comparative molecular biology of flaviviruses and hepatitis C virus. Arch Virol Suppl 1992; 4: 163171.
  • 20
    Brown EA, Zhang H, Ping L-H, Lemon SM. Secondary structure of the 5′nontranslated regions of hepatitis C virus and pestivirus genomic RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res 1992; 20: 50415045.
  • 21
    Honda M, Brown EA, Lemon SM. Stability of a stem-loop involving the initiator AUG controls the efficiency of internal initiation of translation on hepatitis C virus. RNA 1996; 2: 955968.
  • 22
    Bukh J, Purcell RH, Miller RH. Sequence analysis of the 5′ noncoding region of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89: 49424946.
  • 23
    Smith DB, Mellor J, Jarvis LM, Davidson F, Kolberg J, Urdea MS, Yap PL, et al. Variation of the hepatitis C virus 5′ non-coding region: implications for secondary structure, virus detection and typing. J Gen Virol 1995; 76: 17491761.
  • 24
    Tsukiyama-Kohara K, Iizuka N, Kohara M, Nomoto A. Internal ribosome entry site within hepatitis C virus RNA. J Virol 1992; 66: 14761483.
  • 25
    Pelletier J, Sonenberg N. Internal initiation of translation of eukaryotic mRNA directed by a sequence derived from poliovirus RNA. Nature 1988; 334: 320325.
  • 26
    Jackson RJ, Howell MT, Kaminski A. The novel mechanism of initiation of picornavirus RNA translation. Trends Biochem Sci 1990; 15: 477483.
  • 27
    Yoo BJ, Spaete R, Geballe AP, Selby M, Houghton M, Han JH. 5′ end-dependent translation of hepatitis C viral RNA and the presence of putative positive and negative translation control elements within the 5′ untranslated region. Virology 1992; 191: 889899.
  • 28
    Wang C, Sarnow P, Siddiqui A. Translation of human hepatitis C virus RNA in cultured cells is mediated by an internal ribosome-binding mechanism. J Virol 1993; 67: 33383344.
  • 29
    Fukushi S, Katayama K, Kurihara C, Ishiyama N, Hoshino FB, Ando T, Oya A. Complete 5′ noncoding region is necessary for the efficient internal initiation of hepatitis C virus RNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 1992: 425432.
  • 30
    Rijnbrand R, Bredenbeek P, van de Straten T, Whetter L, Inchauspe G, Lemon SM, Spann W. Almost the entire 5′ nontranslated region of hepatitis C virus is required for cap independent translation. FEBS Lett 1995; 365: 115119.
  • 31
    Reynolds JE, Kaminski A, Kettinen HJ, Grace K, Clarke BE, Carroll AR, Rowlands D, et al. Unique features of internal initiation of hepatitis C virus RNA translation. EMBO J 1995; 14: 60106020.
  • 32
    Honda M, Ping L-H, Rijnbrand RCA, Amphlett E, Clarke B, Rowlands D, Lemon SM. Structural requirements for initation of translation by internal ribosome entry within genome-length hepatitis C virus RNA. Virology 1996; 222: 3142.
  • 33
    Okamoto H, Okada S, Sugiyama Y, Kurai K, Iizuka H, Machida A, Miyakawa Y, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of hepatitis C virus isolated from a human carrier. J Gen Virol 1991; 72: 26972704.
  • 34
    Hayashi N, Higashi H, Kaminaka K, Sugimoto H, Esumi M, Komatsu K, Hayashi K, et al. Molecular cloning and heterogeneity of the human hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. J Hepatol 1993; 17 (suppl 3): S94S107.
  • 35
    Tanaka T, Kato N, Cho MJ, Shimotohno K A novel sequence found at the 3′ terminus of hepatitis C virus genome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995; 215: 744749.
  • 36
    Yamada N, Tanihara K, Takada A, Yorihuzi T, Tsutsumi M, Shimomura H, Tsuji T, et al. Genetic organization and diversity of the 3′ noncoding region of the hepatitis C virus genome. Virology 1996; 223: 255261.
  • 37
    Lin C, Lindenbach BD, Pragai BM, McCourt DW, Rice CM. Processing in the hepatitis C virus E2-NS2 region: identification of p7 and two distinct E2-specific products with different C termini. J Virol 1994; 68: 50635073.
  • 38
    Grakoui A, McCourt DW, Wychowski C, Feinstone SM, Rice CM. A second hepatitis C virus-encoded proteinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 1058310587.
  • 39
    Hijikata M, Mizushima H, Akagi T, Mori S, Kakiuchi N, Kato N, Tanaka T, et al. Two distinct proteinase activities required for the processing of a putative nonstructural precursor protein of hepatitis C virus. J Virol 1993; 67: 46654675.
  • 40
    Grakoui A, McCourt DW, Wychowski C, Feinstone SM, Rice CM. Characterization of the hepatitis C virus-encoded serine proteinase: determination of proteinase-dependent polyprotein cleavage sites. J Virol 1993; 67: 28322843.
  • 41
    Hijikata M, Mizushima H, Tanji Y, Komoda Y, Hirowatari Y, Akagi T, Kato N, et al. Proteolytic processing and membrane association of putative nonstructural proteins of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 1077310777.
  • 42
    Eckart MR, Selby M, Masiarz F, Lee C, Berger K, Crawford K, Kuo C, et al. The hepatitis C virus encodes a serine protease involved in processing of the putative nonstructural proteins from the viral polyprotein precursor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993; 192: 399406.
  • 43
    Bartenschlager R, Ahlborn-Laake L, Mous J, Jacobsen H. Nonstructural protein 3 of the hepatitis C virus encodes a serine-type proteinase required for cleavage at the NS3/4 and NS4/5 junctions. J Virol 1993; 67: 38353844.
  • 44
    Manabe S, Fuke I, Tanishita O, Kaji C, Gomi Y, Yoshida S, Mori C, et al. Production of nonstructural proteins of hepatitis C virus requires a putative viral protease encoded by NS3. Virology 1994; 198: 636644.
  • 45
    Tomei L, Failla C, Santolini E, De Francesco R, La Monica N. NS3 is a serine protease required for processing of hepatitis C virus polyprotein. J Virol 1993; 67: 40174026.
  • 46
    Nasoff M, Zebedee SL, Inchauspe G, Prince AM. Identification of an immunodominant epitope within the capsid protein of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 54625466.
  • 47
    Hosein B, Fang CT, Popovsky MA, Ye J, Zhang M, Wang CY. Improved serodiagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection with synthetic peptide antigen from capsid protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 36473651.
  • 48
    Ishida C, Matsumoto K, Fukada K, Matsushita K, Shiraki H, Maeda Y. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural proteins in anti-HCV–positive sera by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using synthetic peptides as antigens. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 936940.
  • 49
    Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Machida A, Munekata E, Akahane Y, Sugai Y, Mashiko K, et al. Antibodies against synthetic oligopeptides deduced from the putative core gene for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 1992; 15: 180186.
  • 50
    Lo SY, Selby M, Tong M, Ou J. Comparative studies of the core gene products of two different hepatitis C virus isolates: two alternative forms determined by a single amino acid substitution. Virology 1994; 199: 124131.
  • 51
    Harada S, Watanabe Y, Takeuchi K, Suzuki T, Katayama T, Takebe Y, Saito I, et al. Expression of processed core protein of hepatitis C virus in mammalian cells. J Virol 1991; 65: 30153021.
  • 52
    Selby M, Choo Q, Berger K, Kuo G, Glazer E, Eckart MR, Lee C, et al. Expression, identification and subcellular localization of the proteins encoded by the hepatitis C viral genome. J Gen Virol 1993; 74: 11031113.
  • 53
    Santolini E, Migliaccio G, La Monica N. Biosynthesis and biochemical properties of the hepatitis C virus core protein. J Virol 1994; 68: 36313641.
  • 54
    Hussy P, Langen H, Mous J, Jacobsen H. Hepatitis C virus core protein: carboxy-terminal boundaries of two processed species suggest cleavage by a signal peptide peptidase. Virology 1996; 224: 93104.
  • 55
    Lo SY, Masiarz F, Hwang SB, Lai MM, Ou JH. Differential subcellular localization of hepatitis C virus core gene products. Virology 1995; 213: 455461.
  • 56
    Moradpour D, Englert C, Wakita T, Wands JR. Characterization of cell lines allowing tightly regulated expression of hepatitis C virus core protein. Virology 1996; 222: 5163.
  • 57
    Shih C, Lo SJ, Miyamura T, Chen S, Wu Lee Y. Suppression of hepatitis B virus expression and replication by hepatitis C virus core protein in HuH-7 cells. J Virol 1993; 67: 58235832.
  • 58
    Lanford RE, Notvall L, Chavez D, White R, Frenzel G, Simonsen C, Kim J. Analysis of hepatitis C virus capsid, E1, and E2/NS1 proteins expressed in insect cells. Virology 1993; 197: 225235.
  • 59
    Chang SC, Yen J, Kang H, Jang M, Chang M. Nuclear localization signals in the core protein of hepatitis C virus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 205: 12841290.
  • 60
    Suzuki R, Matsuura Y, Suzuki T, Ando A, Chiba J, Harada S, Saito I, et al. Nuclear localization of the truncated hepatitis C virus core protein with its hydrophobic C terminus deleted. J Gen Virol 1995; 76: 5361.
  • 61
    Ray RB, Lagging LM, Meyer K, Steele R, Ray R. Transcriptional regulation of cellular and viral promoters by the hepatitis C virus core protein. Virus Res 1995; 37: 209220.
  • 62
    Ray RB, Lagging LM, Meyer K, Ray R. Hepatitis C virus core protein cooperates with ras and transforms primary rat embryo fibroblasts to tumorigenic phenotype. J Virol 1996; 70: 44384443.
  • 63
    Ray RB, Meyer K, Ray R. Suppression of apoptotic cell death by hepatitis C virus core protein. Virology 1996; 226: 176182.
  • 64
    Shih C, Chen C, Chen S, Wu Lee Y. Modulation of the trans- suppress ion activity of hepatitis C virus core protein by phosphorylation. J Virol 1995; 69: 11601171.
  • 65
    Miyamura T, Matsuura Y. Structural proteins of hepatitis C virus. Trends Microbiol 1993; 1: 229231.
  • 66
    Mizushima H, Hijikata M, Asabe S, Hirota M, Kimura K, Shimotohno K. Two hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 products with different C termini. J Virol 1994; 68: 62156222.
  • 67
    Selby M, Glazer E, Masiarz F, Houghton M. Complex processing and protein:protein interactions in the E2:NS2 region of HCV. Virology 1994; 204: 114122.
  • 68
    Dubuisson J, Hsu HH, Cheung RC, Greenberg HB, Russell DG, Rice CM. Formation and intracellular localization of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein complexes expressed by recombinant vaccinia and sindbis viruses. J Virol 1994; 68: 61476160.
  • 69
    Spaete R, Alexander D, Rugroden ME, Choo Q, Berger K, Crawford K, Kuo C, et al. Characterization of the hepatitis C virus E2/NS1 gene product expressed in mammalian cells. Virology 1992; 188: 819830.
  • 70
    Ralston R, Thudium K, Berger K, Kuo C, Gervase B, Hall J, Selby M, et al. Characterization of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein complexes expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses. J Virol 1993; 67: 67536761.
  • 71
    Dubuisson J, Rice CM. Hepatitis C virus glycoprotein folding: disulfide bond formation and association with calnexin. J Virol 1996; 70: 778786.
  • 72
    Choo Q, Kuo G, Ralston R, Weiner AJ, Chien D, Van Nest G, Han J, et al. Vaccination of chimpanzees against infection by the hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 12941298.
  • 73
    Weiner AJ, Brauer MJ, Rosenblatt J, Richman KH, Tung J, Crawford K, Bonino F. Variable and hypervariable domains are found in the regions of HCV corresponding to the flavivirus envelope and NS1 proteins and the pestivirus envelope glycoproteins. Virology 1991; 180: 842848.
  • 74
    Sekiya H, Kato N, Ootsuyama Y, Nakazawa T, Yamauchi K, Shimotohno K .Genetic alterations of the putative envelope proteins encoding region of the hepatitis C virus in the progression to relapsed phase from acute hepatitis: humoral immune response to hypervariable region 1. Int J Cancer 1994; 57: 664670.
  • 75
    Nakajima N, Hijikata M, Yoshikura H, Shimizu YK. Characterization of long-term cultures of hepatitis C virus. J Virol 1996; 70: 33253329.
  • 76
    Kato N, Sekiya H, Ootsuyama Y, Nakazawa T, Hijikata M, Ohkoshi S, Shimotohno K. Characterization of hypervariable regions in the putative envelope protein of hepatitis C virus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992; 189: 119127.
  • 77
    Weiner AJ, Geysen HM, Christopher son C, Hall JE, Mason TJ, Saracco G, Bonino F, et al. Evidence for immune selection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) putative envelope glycoprotein variants: potential role in chronic HCV infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89: 34683472.
  • 78
    Kato N, Sekiya H, Ootsuyama Y, Nakazawa T, Hijikata M, Shimotohno K. Humoral immune responses to hypervariable region 1 of the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus. J Virol 1993; 67: 39233930.
  • 79
    Taniguchi S, Okamoto H, Sakamoto M, Kojima M, Tsuda F, Tanaka T, Munekata E, et al. A structurally flexible and antigenically variable N-terminal domain of the hepatitis C virus E2/NS1 protein: implication for an escape from antibody. Virology 1993; 195: 297301.
  • 80
    Shimizu YK, Hijikata M, Iwamoto A, Alter HJ, Purcell RH, Yoshikura H. Neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis C virus and the emergence of neutralization escape mutant viruses. J Virol 1994; 68: 14941500.
  • 81
    van Doorn LJ, Capriles I, Maertens G, DeLeys R, Murray K, Kos T, Schellekens H, et al. Sequence evolution of the hypervariable region in the putative envelope region E2/NS1 of hepatitis C virus is correlated with specific humoral immune responses. J Virol 1995; 69: 773778.
  • 82
    Zibert A, Schreier E, Roggendorf M. Antibodies in human sera specific to hypervariable region 1 of hepatitis C virus can block viral attachment. Virology 1995; 208: 653661.
  • 83
    Rosa D, Campagnoli S, Moretto C, Guenzi E, Cousens L, Chin M, Dong C, et al. A quantitative test to estimate neutralizing antibodies to the hepatitis C virus: cytofluorimetric assessment of envelope glycoprotein 2 binding to target cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 17591763.
  • 84
    Shimizu YK, Igarashi H, Kiyohara T, Cabezon T, Farci P, Purcell RH, Yoshikura H. A hyperimmune serum against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the hypervariable region 1 of hepatitis C virus can prevent viral infection in cell cultures. Virology 1996; 223: 409412.
  • 85
    Reed KE, Grakoui A, Rice CM. Hepatitis C virus-encoded NS2-3 protease: cleavage-site mutagenesis and requirements for bimolecular cleavage. J Virol 1996; 69: 41274136.
  • 86
    Santolini E, Pacini L, Fipaldini C, Migliaccio G, Monica N. The NS2 protein of hepatitis C virus is a transmembrane polypeptide. J Virol 1995; 69: 74617471.
  • 87
    Tanji Y, Hijikata M, Hirowatari Y, Shimotohno K. Hepatitis C virus polyprotein processing: kinetics and mutagenic analysis of serine proteinase-dependent cleavage. J Virol 1994; 68: 84188422.
  • 88
    Chambers TJ, Weir RC, Grakoui A, McCourt DW, Bazan JF, Fletterick RJ, Rice CM. Evidence that the N-terminal domain of nonstructural protein NS3 from yellow fever virus is a serine protease responsible for site specific cleavages in the viral polyprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 88988902.
  • 89
    Lin C, Pragai BM, Grakoui A, Xu J, Rice CM. Hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease: transcleavage requirements and processing kinetics. J Virol 1994; 68: 81478157.
  • 90
    Miller RH, Purcell RH. Hepatitis C virus shares amino acid sequence similarity with pestiviruses and flaviviruses as well as members of two plant virus supergroups. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990; 87: 20572061.
  • 91
    Bazan JF, Fletterick RJ. Structural and catalytic models of trypsin-like viral proteases. Sems Virol 1990; 1: 311322.
  • 92
    Bartenschlager R, Ahlborn-Laake L, Mous J, Jacobsen H. Kinetic and structural analyses of hepatitis C virus polyprotein processing. J Virol 1994; 68: 50455055.
  • 93
    Komoda Y, Hijikata M, Sato S, Asabe S, Kimura K, Shimotohno K. Substrate requirements of hepatitis C virus serine proteinase for intermolecular polypeptide cleavage in Escherichia coli. J Virol 1994; 68: 73517357.
  • 94
    Kolykhalov AA, Agapov EV, Rice CM. Specificity of the hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease: effects of substitutions at the 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B cleavage sites on polyprotein processing. J Virol 1994; 68: 75257533.
  • 95
    Steinkuhler C, Urbani A, Tomei L, Biasiol G, Sardana M, Bianchi E, Pessi A, et al. Activity of purified hepatitis C virus protease NS3 on peptide substrates. J Virol 1996; 70: 66946700.
  • 96
    Tanji Y, Hijikata M, Saitoh S, Kaneko T, Shimotohno K. Hepatitis C virus-encoded nonstructural protein NS4A has versatile functions in viral protein processing. J Virol 1995; 69: 15751581.
  • 97
    Failla C, Tomei L, De Francesco R. An amino-terminal domain of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease is essential for the interaction with NS4A. J Virol 1995; 69: 17691777.
  • 98
    Failla C, Tomei L, De Francesco R. Both NS3 and NS4A are required for proteolytic processing of hepatitis C virus nonstructural proteins. J Virol 1994; 68: 37533760.
  • 99
    Satoh S, Tanji Y, Hijikata M, Kimura K, Shimotohno K .The N-terminal region of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is essential for stable complex formation with NS4A. J Virol 1995; 69: 42554260.
  • 100
    Bartenschlager R, Lohmann V, Wilkinson T, Koch JO. Complex formation between the NS3 serine-type proteinase of the hepatitis C virus and NS4A and its importance for polyprotein maturation. J Virol 1995; 69: 75197528.
  • 101
    Lin C, Thomson JA, Rice CM. A central region in the hepatitis C virus NS4A protein allows formation of an active NS3-NS4A serine proteinase complex in vivo and in vitro. J Virol 1995; 69: 43734380.
  • 102
    Tomei L, Failla C, Vitale RL, Bianchi E, De Francesco R. A central hydrophobic domain of the hepatitis C virus NS4A protein is necessary and sufficient for the activation of the NS3 protease. J Gen Virol 1995; 77: 10651070.
  • 103
    Shimizu Y, Yamaji K, Masuho Y, Yokota T, Inoue H, Sudo K, Satoh S, et al. Identification of the sequence on NS4A required for enhanced cleavage of the NS5A/5B site by hepatitis C virus NS3 protease. J Virol 1996; 70: 127132.
  • 104
    Steinkuhler C, Tomei L, De Francesco R. Activity of hepatitis C virus protease NS3 purified from recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 63676373.
  • 105
    Kim JL, Morgenstern KA, Lin C, Fox T, Dwyer MD, Landro JA, Chambers SP, et al. Crystal structure of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease domain complexed with a synthetic NS4A cofactor peptide. Cell 1996; 87: 343355.
  • 106
    Love RA, Parge HE, Wickersham JA, Hostomsky Z, Habuka N, Moomaw EW, Adachi T, et al. The crystal structure of hepatitis C virus NS3 proteinase reveals a trypsin-like fold and a structural zinc binding site. Cell 1996; 87: 331342.
  • 107
    Hahm B, Han DS, Back SH, Song O, Cho M, Kim C, Shimotohno K, et al. NS3-4A of hepatitis C virus is a chymotrypsin-like protease. J Virol 1995; 69: 25342539.
  • 108
    Lin C, Rice CM. The hepatitis C virus NS3 serine proteinase and NS4A cofactor: establishment of a cell-free trans-processing assay. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 76227626.
  • 109
    Suzich JA, Tamura JK, Palmer-Hill F, Warrener P, Grakoui A, Rice CM, Feinstone SM, et al. Hepatitis C virus NS3 protein polynucleotide-stimulated nucleoside triphosphatase and comparison with related pes-tivirus and flavivirus enzymes. J Virol 1993; 67: 61526158.
  • 110
    Hong Z, Ferrari E, Wright-Minogue J, Chase R, Risano C, Seelig G, Lee C, et al. Enzymatic characterization of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A complexes expressed in mammalian cells by using the herpes simplex virus amplicon system. J Virol 1996; 70: 42614268.
  • 111
    Kim DW, Gwack Y, Han JH, Choe J. C-terminal domain of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protein contains an RNA helicase activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995; 215: 160166.
  • 112
    Tai C, Chi W, Chen D, Hwang L. The helicase activity associated with hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). J Virol 1996; 70: 84778484.
  • 113
    Sakamuro D, Furukawa T, Takegami T. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS3 transforms NIH 3T3 cells. J Virol 1995; 69: 38933896.
  • 114
    Enomoto N, Sakuma I, Asahina Y, Kurosaki M, Murakami T, Yamamoto C, Izumi N, et al. Comparison of full-length sequences of interferon-sensitive and resistant hepatitis C virus Ib. J Clin Invest 1995; 96: 224230.
  • 115
    Enomoto N, Sakuma I, Asahina Y, Kurosaki M, Murakami T, Yamamoto C, Ogura Y, et al. Mutations in the nonstructural protein 5A gene and response to interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus Ib infection. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 7781.
  • 116
    Behrens S, Tomei L, De Francesco R. Identification and properties of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of hepatitis C virus. EMBO J 1996; 15: 1222.
  • 117
    Bukh J, Miller RH, Purcell RH. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus: quasispecies and genotypes. Semin Liver Dis 1995; 15: 4163.
  • 118
    Enomoto N, Takada A, Nakao T, Date T. There are two major types of hepatitis C virus in Japan. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990; 170: 10211025.
  • 119
    Chan S, McOmish F, Holmes EC, Dow B, Peutherer JF, Follett E, Yap PL, et al. Analysis of a new hepatitis C virus type and its phylogenetic relationship to existing variants. J Gen Virol 1992; 73: 11311141.
  • 120
    Stuyver L, van Arnhem W, Wyseur A, Hernandez F, Delaporte E, Maertens G. Classification of hepatitis C viruses based on phylogenetic analysis of the envelope 1 and nonstructural 5B regions and identification of five additional subtypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 1013410138.
  • 121
    Tokita H, Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Song P, Nakata S, Chosa T, Lizuka H, et al. Hepatitis C virus variants from Vietnam are classifiable into the seventh, eighth and ninth major genetic groups. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 1102211026.
  • 122
    Machida A, Ohnuma H, Tsuda F, Munekata E, Tanaka T, Akahane Y, Okamoto H, et al. Two distinct subtypes of hepatitis C virus defined by antibodies directed to the putative core protein. Hepatology 1992; 16: 886891.
  • 123
    Simmonds PE, Rose KA, Graham S, Chan S-W, McOmish F, Dow BC, Follett EAC, et al. Mapping of serotype-specific immunodominant epitopes in the NS-4 region of hepatitis C virus (HCV): use of type-specific peptides to serologically differentiate infections with HCV types 1, 2 and 3. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 14931503.
  • 124
    Benvegnu L, Pontisso P, Cavalletto D, Noventa F, Chemello L, Alberti A. Lack of correlation between hepatitis C virus genotypes and clinical course of hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. Hepatology 1997; 25: 211215.
  • 125
    Pontisso P, Ruvoletto MG, Nicoletti M, Tisminetzky S, Gerotto M, Levrero M, Artini M, et al. Distribution of the three major hepatitis C virus genotypes in Italy. A multicentre study of 495 patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat 1995; 2: 3338.
  • 126
    Kobayashi Y, Watanabe S, Konishi M, Yokoi M, Kakehashi R, Kaito M, Kondo M, et al. Quantitation and typing of serum hepatitis C virus RNA in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with interferon-B. Hepatology 1993; 18: 13191325.
  • 127
    Feinstone SM, Mihalik KB, Kamimura T, Alter HJ, London WT, Purcell RH. Inactivation of hepatitis B virus and non-A, non-B hepatitis by chloroform. Infect Immun 1983; 41: 816821.
  • 128
    He LF, Ailing D, Popkin T, Shapiro M, Alter HJ, Purcell RH. Determining the size of non-A, non-B hepatitis virus by filtration. J Infect Dis 1987; 156: 636640.
  • 129
    Kaito M, Watanabe S, Tsukiyama-Kohara K, Yamaguchi K, Kobayashi Y, Konishi M, Yokoi M, et al. Hepatitis C virus particle detected by immune-electron microscopic study. J Gen Virol 1994; 75: 17551760.
  • 130
    Shimizu YK, Feinstone SM, Kohara M, Purcell RH, Yoshikura H. Hepatitis C virus: detection of intracellular virus particles by electron microscopy [Comments]. Hepatology 1996; 23: 205209.
  • 131
    Hijikata M, Shimizu YK, Kato H, Iwamoto A, Shih JW, Alter HJ, Purcell RH, et al. Equilibrium centrifugation studies of hepatitis C virus: evidence for circulating immune complexes. J Virol 1993; 67: 19531958.
  • 132
    Thomssen R, Bonk S, Thiele A. Density heterogeneities of hepatitis C virus in human sera due to the binding of beta-lipoproteins and immuno-globulins. Med Micro Imm 1993; 182: 329334.
  • 133
    Kanto T, Hayashi N, Takehara T, Hagiwara H, Mita E, Naito M, Kasahara A, et al. Buoyant density of hepatitis C virus recovered from infected hosts: two different features in sucrose equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation related to degree of liver inflammation. Hepatology 1994; 19: 296302.
  • 134
    Choo S, So H, Cho JM, Ryu W. Association of hepatitis C virus particles with immunoglobulin: a mechanism for persistent infection. J Gen Virol 1995; 76: 23372341.
  • 135
    Shindo M, Di Bisceglie AM, Akatsuka T, Fong T, Scaglione L, Donets M, Hoofhagle J, et al. The physical state of the negative strand of hepatitis C virus RNA in the serum of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 87198723.
  • 136
    Miyamoto H, Okamoto H, Sato K, Tanaka T, Mishiro S. Extraordinarily low density of hepatitis C virus estimated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and the polymerase chain reaction. J Gen Virol 1992; 73: 715718.
  • 137
    Farci P, Alter HJ, Govindarajan S, Wong D, Engle R, Lesniewski RR, Mushahwar IK, et al. Lack of protective immunity against reinfection with hepatitis C virus. Science 1992; 258: 135140.
  • 138
    Prince AM, Brotman B, Huima T, Pascual D, Jaffery M, Inchauspe G. Immunity in hepatitis C infection. J Infect Dis 1992; 165: 438443.
  • 139
    Farci P, Alter HJ, Wong D, Miller RH, Govindarajan S, Engle R, Shapiro M, et al. Prevention of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees after antibody-mediated in vitro neutralization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 77927796.
  • 140
    Kato N, Ootsuyama Y, Sekiya H, Ohkoshi S, Nakazawa T, Hijikata M, Shimotohno K. Genetic drift in hypervariable region 1 of the viral genome in persistent hepatitis C virus infection. J Virol 1994; 68: 47764784.
  • 141
    Okamoto H, Kojima M, Okada S, Yoshizawa H, Lizuka H, Tanaka T, Muchmore EE, et al. Genetic drift of hepatitis C virus during an 8.2 year infection in a chimpanzee: variability and stability. Virology 1992; 190: 894899.
  • 142
    Cerny A, Chisari FV. Immunological aspects of HCV infection. Intervirology 1994; 37: 119125.
  • 143
    Davis GL. Interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Am J Med 1994; 96 (suppl 1A): 1A41S1A46S.
  • 144
    Wakita T, Wands JR. Specific inhibition of hepatitis C virus expression by antisense oligonucleotides. J Biol Chem 1994; 269: 1420514210.
  • 145
    Mizutani T, Kato N, Hirota M, Sugiyama K, Murakami A, Shimotohno K. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by antisense oligonucleotide in culture cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995; 212: 906911.
  • 146
    Alt M, Renz R, Hofschneider PH, Paumgartner G, Caselmann WH. Specific inhibition of hepatitis C viral gene expression by antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides. Hepatology 1995; 22: 707717.
  • 147
    Vidalin O, Major M, Rayner B, Imbach J, Trepo C, Inchauspe G. In vitro inhibition of hepatitis C virus gene expression by chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996; 40: 23372344.
  • 148
    Lieber A, He C, Polyak SJ, Gretch DR, Barr D, Kay MA. Elimination of hepatitis C virus RNA in infected human hepatocytes by adenovirus-mediated expression of ribozymes. J Virol 1996; 70: 87828791.
  • 149
    Lu H, Wimmer E. Poliovirus chimeras replicating under the translational control of genetic elements of hepatitis C virus reveal unusual properties of the internal ribosome entry site of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 14121417.
  • 150
    Hahm B, Back SH, Lee TG, Wimmer E, Jang SK. Generation of a novel poliovirus with a requirement of hepatitis C virus protease NS3 activity. Virology 1996; 226: 318326.
  • 151
    Shimizu YK, Yoshikura H. Multicycle infection of hepatitis C virus in cell culture and inhibition by alpha and beta interferons. J Virol 1994; 68: 84068408.
  • 152
    Kato N, Nakazawa T, Mizutani T, Shimotohno K. Susceptibility of human T-lymphotropic virus type I infected cell line MT-2 to hepatitis C virus infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995; 206: 863869.
  • 153
    Cribier B, Scmitt C, Bingen A, Kirn A, Keller F. In vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by hepatitis C virus. J Gen Virol 1995; 76: 24852491.
  • 154
    Yoo BJ, Selby M, Choe J, Suh BS, Choi SH, Joh JS, Nuovo GJ, et al. Transfection of a differentiated human hepatoma cell line (Huh 7) with in vitro– transcribed hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and establishment of a long-term culture persistently infected with HCV. J Virol 1995; 69: 3238.
  • 155
    Willems M, Moshage H, Yap SH. PCR and detection of negative HCV RNA strands. Hepatology 1993; 17: 526.
  • 156
    Lanford RE, Sureau C, Jacob JR, White R, Fuerst TR. Demonstration of in vitro infection of chimpanzee hepatocytes with hepatitis C virus using strand specific RT/PCR. Virology 1994; 202: 606614.
  • 157
    Lerat H, Berby F, Trabaud M, Vidalin O, Major M, Trepo C, Inchauspe G. Specific detection of hepatitis C virus minus strand RNA in hematopoietic cells. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 845851.
  • 158
    McGuinness PH, Bishop GA, McCaughan GW, Trowbridge R, Gowans EJ. False detection of negative-strand hepatitis C virus RNA. Lancet 1994; 343: 551552.
  • 159
    Chaves RL, Graff J, Normann A, Flemig B. Specific detection of minus strand hepatitis A virus RNA by Tail-PCR following reverse transcription. Nucleic Acids Res 1994; 22: 19191920.
  • 160
    Inchauspe G. Genomic structure of the human prototype strain H of hepatitis C virus: comparison with American and Japanese isolates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 1029210296.
  • 161
    Tanaka T, Kato N, Nakagawa M, Ootsuyama Y, Cho MJ, Nakazawa T, Hijikata M, et al. Molecular cloning of hepatitis C virus genome from a single Japanese carrier: sequence variation within the same individual and among infected individuals. Virus Res 1992; 23: 3953.
  • 162
    Kato N, Hijikata M, Nakagawa M, Ootsuyama Y, Muraiso K, Ohkoshi S, Shimotohno K. Molecular structure of the Japanese hepatitis C viral genome. FEBS Lett 1991; 280: 325328.
  • 163
    Okamoto H, Kurai K, Okada S, Yamamoto K, Iizuka H, Tanaka T, Fu-kuda S, et al. Full-length sequence of a hepatitis C virus genome having poor homology to reported isolates: comparative study of four distinct genotypes. Virology 1992; 188: 331341.