• 1
    Abo T, Watanabe H, Iiai T, Kimura M, Ohtsuka K, Sato K, Ogawa M, et al. Extrathymic pathways of T cell differentiation in the liver and other organs. Int Rev Immunol 1994; 11: 61102.
  • 2
    Seki S, Abo T, Ohteki T, Sugiura K, Kumagai K. Unusual αβ-T cells expanded in autoimmune lpr mice are probably a counterpart of normal T cells in the liver. J Immunol 1991; 147: 12141221.
  • 3
    Okuyama R, Abo T, Seki S, Ohteki T, Sugiura K, Kusumi A, Kumagai K. Estrogen administration activates extrathymic T cell differentiation in the liver. J Exp Med 1992; 175: 661669.
  • 4
    Seki S, Kono DH, Balderas RS, Theofilopoulos AN. Vβ repertoire of murine hepatic T cells: implication for selection of double negative αβ+ T cells. J. Immunol 1994; 153: 637646.
  • 5
    Sato K, Ohtsuka K, Hasegawa K, Yamagiwa S, Watanabe H, Asakura H, Abo T. Evidence for extrathymic generation of intermediate T cell receptor cells in the liver revealed in thymectomized, irradiated mice subjected to bone marrow transplantation. J Exp Med 1995; 182: 759767.
  • 6
    Kenai H, Matsuzaki G, Lin T, Yoshida H, Nomoto K. Precursor cells to CD3-intermediate (CD3int) liver mononuclear cells in the liver: further evidence for the extrathymic development of CD3int liver mononuclear cells. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25: 33653369.
  • 7
    Taniguchi H, Toyoshima T, Fukao K, Nakauchi H. Presence of hematopoietic stem cells in the adult liver. Nature Med 1996; 2: 198203.
  • 8
    Watanabe H, Miyaji C, Seki S, Abo T. c-kit+ stem cells and thymocyte precursors in the liver of adult mice. J Exp Med 1996; 184: 687693.
  • 9
    Watanabe H, Miyaji C, Kawachi Y, Iiai T, Ohtsuka K, Iwanaga T, Takahashi-Iwanaga H, et al. Relationships between intermediate TCR cells and NK1.1+ T cells in various immune organs. NK1.1+ T cells are present within a population of intermediate TCR cells. J Immunol 1995; 155: 29722983.
  • 10
    Bix M, Coles M, Raulet D. Positive selection of V 8+ CD48 thymocytes by class I molecules expressed by hematopoietic cells. J Exp Med 1993; 178: 901908
  • 11
    Bendelac A, Killeen N, Littman DR, Schwartz RH. A subset of CD4+ thymocytes selected by MHC class I molecules. Science 1994; 263: 17741778.
  • 12
    Coles MC, Raulet DH. Class I dependence of the development of CD4+CD8 NK1.1 + thymocytes. J Exp Med 1994; 180: 395399.
  • 13
    Ohteki T, MacDonald HR. Major histocompatibility complex class I related molecules control the development of CD4+8 and CD48 subsets of natural killer 1.1+ T cell receptor- α/β+ cells in the liver of mice. J Exp Med 1994; 180: 699704.
  • 14
    Kikly K, Dennert G. Evidence for extrathymic development of TNK cells. NK1 + CD3+ cells responsible for acute marrow graft rejection are present in thymus-deficient mice. J Immunol 1992; 149: 403412.
  • 15
    Sykes M. Unusual T cell populations in adult murine bone marrow: prevalence of CD3+CD4CD8 and αβTCR+NK1.1 + cells. J Immunol 1990; 145: 32093215.
  • 16
    Hashimoto W, Takeda K, Anzai R, Ogasawara K, Sakihara H, Sugiura K, Seki S, et al. Cytotoxic NK1.1 Ag+α/β T cells with intermediate TCR induced in the liver of mice by IL-12. J Immunol 1995; 154: 43334340.
  • 17
    Arase H, Arase N, Nakagawa K, Good RA, Onoe K. NK1.1+CD4+CD8 thymocytes with specific lymphokine secretion. Eur J Immunol 1993; 23: 307310.
  • 18
    Emoto M, Emoto Y, Kaufmann SH. IL-4 producing CD4+ TCRα/βint liver lymphocytes: influence of thymus, β2-microglobulin and NK1 expression. Int Immunol 1995; 7: 17291739.
  • 19
    Bendelac A, Hunziker RD, Lantz O. Increased interleukin 4 and immunoglobulin E production in transgenic mice overexpressing NK1.1 T cells. J Exp Med 1996; 184: 12851293.
  • 20
    Arase H, Arase N, Saito T. Interferon γ production by Natural Killer (NK) cells and NK1.1 + T cells upon NKR-P1 cross-linking. J Exp Med 1996; 183: 23912396.
  • 21
    Takeda K, Seki S, Ogasawara K, Anzai R, Hashimoto W, Sugiura K, Takahashi M, et al. Liver NK1.1 + CD4+αβ T cells activated by IL-12 as a major effector in inhibition of experimental tumor metastasis. J Immunol 1996; 156: 33663373.
  • 22
    Takahashi M, Ogasawara K, Takeda K, Hashimoto W, Sakihara H, Kumagai K, Anzai R, et al. LPS induces NK1.1+αβ T cells with potent cytotoxicity in the liver of mice via production of IL-12 from Kupffer cells. J Immunol 1996; 156: 24362442.
  • 23
    Anzai R, Seki S, Ogasawara K, Hashimoto W, Sugiura K, Sato M, Kumagai K, et al. IL-12 induces cytotoxic NK1+αβ T cells in the lung of euthymic and athymic mice. Immunology 1996; 88: 8289.
  • 24
    Ohteki T, Okuyama R, Seki S, Abo T, Sugiura K, Kusumi A, Ohmori T, et al. Age-dependent increase of extrathymic T cells in the liver and their appearance in the periphery of older mice. J Immunol 1992; 149: 15621570.
  • 25
    Watanabe H, Ohtsuka K, Kimura M, Ikarashi Y, Ohmori T, Kusumi A, Ohteki T, et al. Details of an isolation method for hepatic lymphocytes in mice. J Immunol Methods 1992; 146: 145154.
  • 26
    Goossens PL, Jouin H, Marchal G, Milon G. Isolation and flow cytometric analysis of the free lymphomyeloid cells present in murine liver. J Immunol Methods 1990; 132: 137144.
  • 27
    Lantz O, Bendelac A. An invariant T cell receptor α chain is used by a unique subset of major histocompatibility complex class I-specific CD4+ and CD48 T cells in mice and humans. J Exp Med 1994; 180: 10971106.
  • 28
    Okada T, Iiai T, Kawachi Y, Moroda T, Takii Y, Hatakeyama K, Abo T. Origin of CD57+T cells which increase at tumour sites in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Exp Immunol 1995; 102: 159166.
  • 29
    Satoh M, Seki S, Hashimoto W, Ogasawara K, Kobayashi T, Kumagai K, Matsuno S, et al. Cytotoxic γδ or αβ T cells with a natural killer cell marker, CD56, induced from human peripheral blood lymphocytes by a combination of IL-12 and IL-2. J Immunol 1996; 157: 38863892.
  • 30
    Ligthart GJ, van Vlokhoven PC, Schuit HR, Hijmans W. The expanded null cell compartment in ageing: increase in the number of natural killer cells and changes in T-cell and NK-cell subsets in human blood. Immunology 1986; 59: 353357.
  • 31
    Lerner A, Yamada T, Miller RA. Pgp-1 hi T lymphocytes accumulate with age in mice and respond poorly to concanavalin A. Eur J Immunol 1989; 19: 977982.
  • 32
    Ernst DN, Hobbs MV, Torbett BE, Glasebrook AL, Rehse MA, Bottomly K, Hayakawa K, et al. Differences in the expression profile of CD45RB, Pgp-1, and 3G11 membrane antigens and in the patterns of lymphokine secretion by splenic CD4+ T cells from young and aged mice. J Immunol 1990; 145: 12951302.
  • 33
    Gabriel H, Schmitt B, Kindermann W. Age-related increase of CD45RO+ lymphocytes in physically active adults. Eur J Immunol 1993; 23: 27042706.
  • 34
    Callahan JE, Kapplar JW, Marrak P. Unexpected expansion of CD8-bearing cells in old mice. J Immunol 1993; 151: 66576669.
  • 35
    Hosono M, Toichi E, Hosokawa M, Imamura S, Gyotoku J, Katsura Y, Hosokawa T. Development of autoreactivity and changes of T cell repertoire in different strains of aging mice. Mechanisms Aging Dev 1995; 78: 197214.
  • 36
    Proust JJ, Filburn CR, Harrison SA, Buchholz MA, Nordin AA. Age related defect in signal transduction during lectin activation of murine T lymphocytes. J Immunol 1987; 139: 14721478.
  • 37
    Philosophe B, Miller RA. Diminished calcium signal generation in subsets of T lymphocytes that predominate in old mice. J Gerontol 1990; 45: 887893.
  • 38
    Gonzalez-Quintial R, Theofilopoulos AN. Vβ gene repertoire in aging mice. J Immunol 1992; 149: 230236.
  • 39
    Ohteki T, Seki S, Abo T, Kumagai K. Liver is a possible site for the proliferation of abnormal CD3+48 double-negative lymphocytes in autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice. J Exp Med 1990; 172: 712.
  • 40
    Makino Y, Koseki H, Adachi Y, Akasaka T, Tsuchida K, Taniguchi M. Extrathymic differentiation of a T cell bearing invariant Vα14Jα281 TCR. Int Rev Immunol 1994; 11: 3146.
  • 41
    Kawachi Y, Arai K, Moroda T, Kawamura T, Umezu H, Naito M, Ohtsuka K, et al. Supportive cellular elements for hepatic T cell differentiation: T cells expressing intermediate levels of T cell receptor are cytotoxic against syngeneic hepatoma, and are lost after hepatocyte damage. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25: 34523459.
  • 42
    Yang Y, Wilson JM. Clearance of adenovirus-infected hepatocytes by MHC Class I-restricted CD4+CTLs in vivo. J Immunol 1995; 155: 25642570.
  • 43
    Barnaba V, Franco A, Paroli M, Benvenuto R, De Petrillo G, Burgio VL, Santilio I, et al. Selective expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes with a CD4+CD56+ surface phenotype and a T helper type 1 profile of cytokine secretion in the liver of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. J Immunol 1994; 152: 30743087.
  • 44
    Sadat-Sowti B, Debré P, Mollet L, Quint L, Hadida F, Leblond V, Bismuth G, Autran B. An inhibitor of cytotoxic functions produced by CD8+CD57+T lymphocytes from patients suffering from AIDS and immunosuppressed bone marrow recipients. Eur J Immunol 1994; 24: 28822888.
  • 45
    Fregona I, Guttmann RD, Jean R. HNK-1+ Leu-7 and other lymphocyte subsets in long term survivors with renal allotransplants. Transplantation 1985; 39: 2529.
  • 46
    Leroy E, Calvo CF, Divine M, Gourdin MF, Baujean F, Ariba MH Ben, Mishal Z, et al. Persistence of T8+/HNK1+ suppressor lymphocytes in the blood of long term surviving patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J Immunol 1986; 137: 21802189.
  • 47
    Hayashi Y, Utsuyama M, Kurashima C, Hirokawa K. Spontaneous development of organ-specific autoimmune lesions in aged C57BL/6 mice. Clin Exp Immunol 1989; 78: 120126.
  • 48
    Kenai H, Matsuzaki G, Nakamura T, Yoshikai Y, Nomoto K. Thymus-derived cytokine(s) including interleukin-7 induce increase of T cell receptor α/β + CD4CD8 T cells which are extrathymically differentiated in athymic nude mice. Eur J Immunol 1993; 23: 18181825.
  • 49
    Watanabe-Fukunaga R, Brannan CI, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Nagata S. Lymphoproliferation disorder in mice explained by defects in Fas antigen that mediate apoptosis. Nature 1992; 356: 314317.
  • 50
    Koh DR, Ho A, Rahemtulla A, Fung-Leung WP, Griesser H, Mak TW. Murine lupus in MRL/lpr mice lacking CD4 or CD8 T cells. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25: 25582562.
  • 51
    Ohteki T, Iwamoto M, Izui S, MacDonald HR. Reduced development of CD48B220+ T cells but normal autoantibody production in 1pr/ 1pr mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25: 3741.
  • 52
    Singer PA, Balderas RS, McEvilly RJ, Bobardt M, Theofilopoulos AN. Tolerance-related Vβ clonal deletion in normal CD48, TCR αβ+ and abnormal lpr and gld cell populations. J Exp Med 1989; 170: 18691877.