The expression of several adhesion molecules is increased on the hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) in various liver diseases. The objective of this study is to assess the roles of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and of CD18 in the interaction between the neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) and SECs and in the injury to SECs mediated by PMNs. Rat PMNs was perfused on SECs stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) using an in vitro flow system. The number of adhered PMNs to SECs and that of PMNs migrated under SECs was counted and the effects of anti-ICAM-1, anti-CD18, and dexamethasone were studied. We also define the effect of these antibodies on the SEC injury mediated by PMNs stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). TNF-α significantly increased the adhesion of PMNs to SECs (322 ± 26 cells/mm2) compared with controls (194 ± 22 cells/mm2). Anti-ICAM-1 and anti-CD18 significantly inhibited the adhesion of PMNs (131 ± 10 and 51 ± 30 cells/mm2, respectively). These antibodies also decreased the migration rate of PMNs (6.0% and 7.9%, respectively) compared with controls (migration rate, 21.2%). The SEC injury induced by PMA- and fMLP-activated PMNs was prevented by anti-ICAM-1 and anti-CD18. The adhesion of PMNs induced by TNF-α was inhibited by the treatment with dexamethasone (160 ± 20 cells/mm2) via a down-regulation of ICAM-1 expression on SECs. The interactions between ICAM-1 and CD18 appeared to be important in the adhesion and the migration of PMNs to SECs. The injury to SECs was induced by the close interaction between the activated PMNs and SECs mediated via ICAM-1 and CD18.