• 1
    Shaffer EA. Abnormalities in gallbladder function in cholesterol gallstone disease: bile and blood, mucosa and muscle–the list lengthens. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 18081812.
  • 2
    Pomeranz IS, Shaffer EA. Abnormal gallbladder emptying in a subgroup of patients with gallstones. Gastroenterology 1985; 88: 787791.
  • 3
    Behar J, Lee KY, Thompson WR, Biancani P. Gallbladder contraction in patients with pigment and cholesterol stones. Gastroenterology 1989; 97: 14791484.
  • 4
    LaMont JT, Afdhal NH. Biliary tract. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 1993; 9: 787790.
  • 5
    LaMorte WW. Biliary motility and abnormalities associated with cholesterol cholelithiasis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 1993; 9: 810816.
  • 6
    Brugge WR, Brand DL, Arkins H, Lane B, Abel WG. Gallbladder dyskinesia in chronic acalculous cholecystitis. Dig Dis Sci 1986; 31: 461467.
  • 7
    Spengler U, Sackmann M, Sauerbruch T, Holl J, Paumgartner G. Gallbladder motility before and after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Gastroenterology 1989; 96: 860863.
  • 8
    Kaminski DL. Arachidonic acid metabolites in hepatobiliary physiology and disease. Gastroenterology 1989; 97: 781792.
  • 9
    Fridhandler TM, Davison JS, Shaffer EA. Defective gallbladder contractility in the ground squirrel and prairie dog during the early stages of cholesterol gallstone formation. Gastroenterology 1983; 85: 830836.
  • 10
    MacPherson BR, Pemsingh RS, Scott GW. Experimental cholelithiasis in the ground squirrel. Lab Invest 1987; 56: 138145.
  • 11
    Smith BE, LaMont JT, Small DM. The sequence of events in gallstone formation. Lab Invest 1987; 56: 125127.
  • 12
    Xu QW, Shaffer EA. Cisapride improves gallbladder contractility and bile lipid composition in an animal model of gallstone disease. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 11841191.
  • 13
    Xu QW, Scott RB, Tan D, Shaffer EA. Slow intestinal transit: a motility disorder contributing to cholesterol gallstone formation in the ground squirrel. Hepatology 1996; 23: 16641672.
  • 14
    Pauletzki JG, Xu QW, Shaffer EA. Biliary hypomotility decreases cholesterol saturation in bile in the Richardson ground squirrel. Hepatology 1995; 22: 325331.
  • 15
    Roslyn JJ, DenBesten L, Pitt H, Kuchenbecker S, Polarek JW. Effect of cholecystokinin on gallbladder stasis and cholesterol gallstone formation. J Surg Res 1981; 30: 200204.
  • 16
    Doty JE, Pitt HA, Porter-Fink V, DenBesten L. Cholecystokinin prophylaxis of parenteral nutrition-induced gallbladder disease. Ann Surg 1985; 201: 7680.
  • 17
    Carey MC, Duane WC. Enterohepatic circulation. In: AriasIM, et al. eds. The Liver: Biology and Pathobiology. 3rd ed. New York: Raven, 1994: 719768.
  • 18
    Carey MC, Cahalane MJ. Whither biliary sludge? Gastroenterology 1988; 95: 508523.
  • 19
    Holan KR, Holzbach RT, Hermann RE, Cooperman A, Claffey NJ. Nucleation time: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 611617.
  • 20
    Shaffer EA, Small DM. Biliary lipid secretion in cholesterol gallstone disease. The effect of cholecystectomy and obesity. J Clin Invest 1977; 59: 828840.
  • 21
    Berr F, Stellaard F, Pratschke E, Paumgartner G. Effects of cholecystectomy on the kinetics of primary and secondary bile acids. J Clin Invest 1989; 83: 15411550.
  • 22
    Stolk MFJ, van Erpecum KJ, Renooij W, Portincasa P, van de Heijning BJM, van Berge-Henegouwen GP. Gallbladder emptying in vivo, bile composition and nucleation of cholesterol crystals in patients with cholesterol gallstones. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 18821888.
  • 23
    Lee SP, LaMont JT, Carey MC. Role of gallstone mucus hypersecretion in the evolution of cholesterol gallstone: studies in a prairie dog. J Clin Invest 1981; 67: 17121723.
  • 24
    Lee SP, Maher K, Nicholls JF. Origin and fate of biliary sludge. Gastroenterology 1988; 94: 170176.
  • 25
    Harvey PRC, Rupar CA, Gallinger S, Petrunka CN, Strasberg SM. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of gallbladder mucus glycoprotein from patients with and without gallstones. Gut 1985; 27: 374381.
  • 26
    Halpern Z, Dudley MA, Kibe A, Lynn MP, Breuer AC, Holzbach RT. Rapid vesicle formation and aggregation in abnormal human bile. A time-lapse video-enhanced contrast microscopy study. Gastroenterology 1985; 90: 875885.
  • 27
    Afdhal NH, Niu N, Gantz D, Small DM, Smith BF. Bovine gallbladder mucin accelerates cholesterol monohydrate crystal growth in model bile. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 15151523.
  • 28
    Afdhal NH, Niu N, Nunes DP, Bansil R, Cao XX, Gantz D, Small DM, et al. Mucin-vesicle interactions in model bile: evidence for vesicle aggregation and fusion before cholesterol crystal formation. Hepatology 1995; 22: 856865.
  • 29
    Chang RSL, Lotti V. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of an extremely potent and selective non-peptide cholecystokinin antagonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986; 83: 49234926.
  • 30
    Liddle RA, Gertz BJ, Kanayama S, Beccaria L, Coker LD, Turnbull TA, Morita ET. Effects of a novel cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist, MK-329, on gallbladder contraction and gastric emptying in humans. J Clin Invest 1989; 84: 12201225.
  • 31
    Carey MC. Critical tables for calculating the cholesterol saturation of native bile. J Lipid Res 1978; 19: 945955.
  • 32
    Mantle M, Thakore E, Atkins E, Mathison R, Davison JS. Effects of streptozotocin-diabetes on rat intestinal mucin and goblet cells. Gastroenterology 1989; 97: 6875.
  • 33
    Hinegardner RT. An improved fluorometric assay for DNA. Anal Bio-chem 1971; 39: 197201.
  • 34
    Jungst D, Lang T, Von Titter C, Pratschke E, Paumgartner G. Cholesterol nucleation time in gallstone bile of patients with solitary or multiple cholesterol gallstones. Hepatology 1992; 15: 804808.
  • 35
    Harvey PRC, Strasberg SM. Will the real cholesterol nucleating and anti-nucleating proteins please stand up. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 646650.
  • 36
    Jazrawi RP, Pazzi P, Petroni ML, Prandini N, Paul C, Adam JA, Gullini S, et al. Postprandial gallbladder motor function: refilling and turnover of bile in health and in cholelithiasis. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 582591.
  • 37
    Kibe A, Dudley MA, Halpern Z, Lynn MP, Breuer AC, Holzbach RT. Factors affecting cholesterol monohydrate crystal nucleation time in model systems of supersaturated bile. J Lipid Res 1985; 26: 11021111.
  • 38
    Small MD, Rapo S. The source of abnormal bile in patients with cholesterol gallstones. N Engl J Med 1970; 283: 5357.
  • 39
    Harvey PRC, Uphadya GA, Strasberg SM. Immunoglobulins as nucleating agents in the gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol gallstones. J Biol Chem 1991; 2266: 1399614003.
  • 40
    Abei M, Schwarzendrube J, Nuutinen H, Broughan TA, Kawczak P, Williams C, Holzbach RT. Cholesterol crystallization-promoters in human bile: comparative potencies of immunoglobulins, α1-acid glycoprotein, phospholipase C and aminopeptidase N. J Lipid Res 1993; 34: 11411148.
  • 41
    Yamashita G, Corradini SG, Secknus R, Takabayashi A, Williams C, Hays L, Chernosky AL, et al. Biliary haptoglobin, a potent promoter of cholesterol crystallization at physiological concentrations. J Lipid Res 1995; 36: 13251333.