• 1
    Schwartz RH. Acquisition of immunologic self-tolerance. Cell 1989; 57: 10731077.
  • 2
    Staples PJ, Gery I, Waksman BH. Role of the thymus in tolerance III. Tolerance to bovine gammaglobulin after direct injection of antigen into the shielded thymus of irradiated rats. J Exp Med 1966; 124: 127132.
  • 3
    Posselt AM, Barker CF, Tomaszewski JE, Markmann JF, Choti MA, Naji A. Induction of donor-specific unresponsiveness by intrathymic islet transplantation. Science 1990; 249: 12931300.
  • 4
    Odorico JS, Barker CF, Posselt AM, Naji A. Induction of donor-specific tolerance to rat cardiac allografts by intrathymic inoculation of bone marrow. Surgery 1992; 112: 370377.
  • 5
    Odorico J, Posselt AM, Naji A, Markmann JF, Barker CF. Promotion of rat cardiac allograft survival by intrathymic inoculation of donor splenocytes. Transplantation 1993; 55: 11041107.
  • 6
    Goss JA, Nakafusa Y, Roland CR, Hickey WF, Flye MW. Immunological tolerance to a defined myelin basic protein antigen administered intrathymically. J Immunol 1994; 153: 38903898.
  • 7
    Sayegh MH, Perico N, Imberti O, Hancock W, Carpenter CB, Remuzzi G. Thymic recognition of class II major histocompatibility complex allopeptides induces donor-specific unresponsiveness to renal allografts. Transplantation 1993; 56: 461465.
  • 8
    Shimomura K, Hardy MA, Oluwole SF. Tolerance induction to cardiac allografts by simultaneous or sequential intrathymic inoculation of disparate alloantigens. Transplantation 1995; 60: 806811.
  • 9
    Starzl TE, Demetris AJ, Rao AS, Thomson AW, Trucco M, Murase N. Migratory nonparenchymal cells after organ allotransplantation: With particular reference to chimerism and the liver. Prog Liver Dis 1994; 10: 191.
  • 10
    Oluwole SF, Chowdhury NC, Fawwaz RA. Induction of donor-specific unresponsiveness to rat cardiac allografts by pretreatment with intrathymic donor MHC class 1 antigens. Transplantation 1993; 55: 13961402.
  • 11
    Gupta S, Aragona E, Vemuru RP, Bhargava KK, Burk RD, Roy-Chowdhury J. Permanent engraftment and function of hepatocytes delivered to the liver: implications for gene therapy and liver repopulation. Hepatology 1991; 14: 144149.
  • 12
    Fabrega AJ, Bommineni VR, Tetali S, Blanchard J, Pollack R, Chowdhury N Roy, Chowdhury J. Roy Amelioration of analbuminemia by transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes in tolerized rats. Transplantation 1995; 59: 13624.
  • 13
    Campos L, Alfrey EJ, Posselt AM, Odorico JS, Naji A, Barker CF. Intrathymic inoculation of donor cells promotes survival of rat orthotopic liver allografts. Transplant Proc 1993; 25: 488489.
  • 14
    Qian T, Schachner R, Brendel M, Kong SS, Alejandro R. Induction of donor-specific tolerance to rat islet allografts by intrathymic inoculation of solubilized spleen cell membrane antigens. Diabetes 1993; 42: 15441546.
  • 15
    Oluwole SF, Chowdhury C, Jin M-X, Hardy MA. Induction of transplantation tolerance to rate cardiac allografts by intrathymic inoculation of allogeneic soluble peptides. Transplantation 1993; 56: 15231527.
  • 16
    Wang M, Strepkowski SM, Wang M, Tian L, Qu X, Tu Y, He G, et al. Induction of specific allograft immunity by soluble class 1 MHC heavy chain protein produced in a baculovirus expression system. Transplantation 1996; 61: 448457.
  • 17
    Ilan Y, Attavar P, Takahashi M, Davidson A, Horwitz M, Guida J, Chowdhury N Roy, Chowdhury J. Roy Induction of central tolerance by intrathymic inoculation of adenoviral antigens into the host thymus permits long-term gene therapy in Gunn rats. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 26402647.
  • 18
    Oluwole SF, Jin M-X, Chowdhury NC, Ohajekwe OA. Effectiveness of intrathymic inoculation of soluble antigens in the induction of specific unresponsiveness to rat islet allografts without transient recipient immunosuppression. Transplantation 1994; 58: 10771081.
  • 19
    Rastellini C, Lu L, Ricordi C, Starzl RE, Rao AS, Thomson AW. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated hepatic dendritic cell progenitors prolong pancreatic islet allograft survival. Transplantation 1995; 60: 13661370.
  • 20
    Maeda T, Eto M, Nishimura Y, Nomoto K, Kong Y-Y, Nomoto K. Role of peripheral hemopoietic chimerism in achieving donor-specific tolerance in adult mice. J Immunol 1993; 150: 753762.
  • 21
    Alard P, Matriano JA, Socarras S, Ortega MA, Streilein JW. Detection of donor-derived cells by polymerase chain reaction in neonatally tolerant mice. Microchimerism fails to predict tolerance. Transplantation 1995; 40: 11251130.
  • 22
    Murakamik K, Maruyama H, Nishio A, Kuribayaski K, Inaba M, Inaba K, Hosono M, et al. Effects of intrathymic injection of organ-specific autoantigens, parietal cells, at the neonatal stage on autoreactive effector and suppressor T-cell precursors. Eur J Immunol 1993; 23: 809814.
  • 23
    Alderuccio F, Toh BH, Tan SS, Gleeson PA, van Driel IR. An autoimmune disease with multiple molecular targets abrogated by the transgenic expression of a single autoantigen in the thymus. J Exp Med 1993; 178: 419426.
  • 24
    Nishio A, Katakai T, Hosono M, Inaba M, Sakai M, Okuma M, Kasakura S, et al. Breakdown of self-tolerance by intrathymic injection of a T-cell line inducing autoimmune gastritis in mice. Immunology 1995; 85: 270275.
  • 25
    Modigliani Y, Thomas-Vaslin V, Bandeira A, Coltey M, Le Douarin NM, Coutinho A, Salaun J. Lymphocytes selected in allogeneic thymic epithelium mediate dominant tolerance toward tissue grafts of the thymic epithelium haplotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 75557559.
  • 26
    Saoudi Y, Seddon B, Heath V, Powell D, Mason D. The physiologic role of regulatory T cells in the prevention of autoimmunity: the function of the thymus in the generation of the regulatory T-cell subset. Immunol Rev 1996; 149: 195215.