SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    D'Amico G, Pagliaro L, Bosch J. The treatment of portal hypertension: a meta-analytic review. Hepatology 1995; 22:332354.MEDLINE
  • 2
    Burroughs AK, Mezzanote G, Phillips A, McCormick PA, McIntyre N. Cirrhotics with variceal hemorrhage: the importance of the time interval between admission and the start of analysis for survival and rebleeding rates. Hepatology 1989; 9:801807.MEDLINE
  • 3
    de Dombal FT, Clarke JR, Clamp SE, Malizia G, Kotwal MR, Morgan AG. Prognostic factors in upper GI bleeding. Endoscopy 1986; 18:610.MEDLINE
  • 4
    Ben-Ari Z, Cardin F, Wannamethee G, McCormick PA, Burroughs AK. Prognostic significance of endoscopic active bleeding and early rebleeding from oesophageal varices [Abstract]. J Hepatol 1996; 20:92A.
  • 5
    Graham DY, Smith JL. The course of patients after variceal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology 1981; 80:800809.MEDLINE
  • 6
    D'Amico G, Morabito A, Pagliaro L, Traina M, Montalbano L. Six-week prognostic indicators in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. Front Gastroinest Res 1986; 9:247251.
  • 7
    Pagliaro L, D'Amico G, Pasta L, Politi F, Vizzini G, Traina M. Portal hypertension in cirrhosis. In: BoschJ, GroszmanRJ, eds. Portal hypertension: pathophysiology and treatment. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific, 1994; 5:7292.
  • 8
    Burroughs AK, McCormick PA, Hughes MD, Sprengers D, D'Heygere F, McIntyre N. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of somatostatin for variceal bleeding. Emergency control and prevention of early variceal rebleeding. Gastroenerology 1990; 99:13881395.
  • 9
    Heresbach D, Bretagne JF, Raoul JL, Chaperon J, Piette C, Siproudhis L, Gastard J, et al. Pronostic et facteurs pronostiques de I' hemorrhagie par rupture de varice chez le cirrhotique a I'ere de la sclerose endoscopique. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1991; 15:838844.MEDLINE
  • 10
    Rimola A, Bory F, Teres J, Perez-Ayuso RM, Arroyo V, Rodes J. Oral nonabsorbable antibiotics prevent infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatology 1985; 5:463467.MEDLINE
  • 11
    Soriano G, Guarner C, Tomas A, Villanueva C, Torras X, Gonzalez D, Sainz S, et al. Norfloxacin prevents bacterial infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterology 1992; 103:12671272.MEDLINE
  • 12
    Blaise M, Pateron D, Trinchet JC, Levacher S, Collignon A, Beaugrand M, Pourriat JL. Systemic antibiotic therapy prevents bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatology 1994; 20:3438.MEDLINE
  • 13
    Bernard B, Cadranel JF, Valla D, Escolano S, Jarlier V, Opolon P. Prognostic significance of bacterial infection in bleeding cirrhotic patients: a prospective study. Gastroenterology 1995; 108:18281834.MEDLINE
  • 14
    Barnes PF, Arevalo C, Chan LS, Wong SF, Reynolds TB. A prospective evaluation of bacteremic patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1988; 8:10991103.MEDLINE
  • 15
    Caly WR, Strauss E. A prospective study of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1993; 18:353358.MEDLINE
  • 16
    de Franchis R, Pascal JP, Ancona E, Burroughs AK, Henderson M, Fleig W, Groszmann R, et al. Definitions, methodology and therapeutic strategies in portal hypertension: a Consensus Development Workshop, Baveno, Lake Maggiore, Italy, April 5 and 6, 1990. J Hepatol 1992; 15:256261.MEDLINE
  • 17
    Burroughs AK. Double blind RCT of 5 day octreotide versus placebo, associated with sclerotherapy for trial/failures [Abstract]. International Octreotide Varices Study Group. Hepatology 1996; 24:352A.
  • 18
    Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 1988; 16:128140.MEDLINE
  • 19
    SAS Institute, Inc. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Version 6. Ed. 4. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, 1989.
  • 20
    De Franchis. Developing concensus in portal hypertension. J Hepatol 1996; 25:390394.MEDLINE
  • 21
    Burroughs AK, Hamilton G, Phillips A, Mezzanote G, McIntyre N, Hobbs KEF. A comparison of sclerotherapy with staple transection of the esophagus for the emergency control of bleeding from esophageal varices. N Engl J Med 1989; 321:857862.MEDLINE
  • 22
    Sauerbrugh T, Weinzieri M, Ansari H, Paumgartner G. Injection sclerotherapy of oesophageal variceal haemorrhage: a prospective long-term follow up study. Endoscopy 1987; 19:181184.MEDLINE
  • 23
    Prindiville T, Miller M, Trudeau W. Prognostic indicators in acute variceal hemorrhage after treatment by sclerotherapy. Am J Gastroenterol 1987; 82:655659.MEDLINE
  • 24
    Runyon BA. Bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1993; 18:271272.MEDLINE
  • 25
    Bleichner G, Boulanger R, Squara P, Sollet JP, Parent A. Frequency of infections in cirrhotic patients presenting with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Br J Surg 1986; 73:724726.MEDLINE
  • 26
    Planas R, Quer JC, Boix J, Canet J, Armengol M, Cabre M, Pintanel T, et al. A prospective randomized trial comparing somatostatin and sclerotherapy in the treatment of acute variceal bleeding. Hepatology 1994; 20:370375.MEDLINE
  • 27
    Garcia-Pagan JC, Teres J, Calvet X, Bosch J, Rodes J. Factors which influence the prognosis of the first episode of variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. Recent advances in the pathophysiology and therapy of portal hypertension. Serono Simposia Rev 1989; 22:287302.
  • 28
    Rimola A, Soto R, Bory F, Arroyo V, Piera C, Rodes J. Reticuloendothelial system phagocytic activity in cirrhosis and its relation to bacterial infections and prognosis. Hepatology 1984; 4:5358.MEDLINE
  • 29
    Akriviadis E. Pathophysiology of bacterial infections in liver diseases. In: TiniakosG, ed. Progress in Hepatology '94. Athens, Greece: European Association for the Study of the Liver, 1994:918.
  • 30
    Ziegler EJ, McCutchan JA, Fierer J, Glauser MP, Sadoff JD, Douglas H, Braude AI. Treatment of Gram-negative bacteremia and shock with human antiserum to a mutant Escherichia coli. N Engl J Med 1982; 307:12251230.MEDLINE
  • 31
    Hewett JA, Roth RA. Hepatic and extrahepatic pathobiology of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Pharmacol Rev 1993; 45:381411.
  • 32
    Busmaschny E, Doglio G, Pusajo J, Vetere L, Parra C, Grosso RM, Schieppati E. Postoperative acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage and multiple-organ failure. Arch Surg 1988; 123:722726.MEDLINE
  • 33
    Beal AL, Cerra F. Multiple organ failure syndrome in the 1990s. Systemic inflammatory response and organ dysfunction. JAMA 1994; 271:226233.MEDLINE
  • 34
    Boermeester MA, van Leeuwen PA, Coyle SM, Wolbink GJ, Hack CE, Lowry SF. Interleukin-1 blockade attenuates mediator release and dysregulation of the hemostatic mechanism during human sepsis. Arch Surg 1995; 130:739748.MEDLINE