Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is a new technique designed to manage esophageal varices. The effect of sclerotherapy following repeated banding ligation remains unknown. Seventy-two patients with a history of esophageal variceal bleeding received regular EVL until variceal disappearance or until left with residual small varices. Subsequently, patients were randomized to receive sclerotherapy (Group 1, 37 patients) or serve as a control (Group 2, 35 patients). Group 1 received one to two sessions of low-dose sclerotherapy to achieve complete variceal disappearance. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, 4 months, recurrent esophageal varices developed in 14% of Group 1 and 43% of Group 2 (P < .02). Rebleeding was encountered in 8% of Group 1 versus 31% of Group 2 (P= .01). One case of esophageal stricture (2.7%) was encountered in Group 1. One patient in Group 1, compared with 3 patients in Group 2, died of massive variceal bleeding (P> .05). The multivariate Cox model indicated that treatment was the only factor predictive of variceal recurrence, and both Child-Pugh class and treatment were factors predictive of variceal rebleeding. The addition of low-dose sclerotherapy following repeated banding ligations proved safe and effective in the prevention of recurrence of esophageal varices and rebleeding.