Adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory liver disease states, including viral and autoimmune hepatitis as well as liver allograft rejection. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine known to up-regulate adhesion molecules as well as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression, and has been demonstrated to be important in the rejection of vascularized organ allografts. The current studies address the effect of TNF-α and the role of ICAM-1 expression on liver cell immunogenicity in vitro in mixed lymphocyte hepatocyte culture (MLHC), in vitro in mixed lymphocyte liver nonparenchymal cell culture (MLNPC), in vivo in hepatocyte sponge matrix allografts (HC-SMA), and in vivo in liver nonparenchymal cell sponge matrix allografts (NPC-SMA). Purified allogeneic hepatocytes (HC) and liver nonparenchymal cells (NPC) under naive, unstimulated conditions demonstrated different profiles of MHC antigen and adhesion molecule expression, but both liver cell populations stimulated the proliferation and development of allospecific cytotoxic effectors in vitro and in vivo. Despite significant up-regulation of MHC class I and ICAM-1 on both HC and liver NPCs by in vivo treatment with TNF-α, the immunogenicity of TNF-α–stimulated liver cells was not appreciably different from naive, unstimulated liver cells. In contrast, ICAM-1–negative HC and NPCs were significantly less immunogenic both in terms of lymphocyte proliferative responses and the generation of allospecific cytolytic effectors. These results suggest that constitutive expression of ICAM-1 enhances the immunogenicity of “donor” liver cells but is not absolutely required to elicit immune responses to allogeneic liver cells. Further studies to determine the role of adhesion molecule expression on trafficking of host immune cells to the liver and the role of adhesion molecule expression by host cells are required to clarify their role in immune responses to liver cells.