• 1
    Lautz HU, Selberg O, Körber J, Bürger M, Müller MJ. Protein-calorie malnutrition in liver cirrhosis. Clin Invest 1992; 70:478486.
  • 2
    Italian Multicentre Cooperative Project on nutrition in liver cirrhosis. Nutritional status in cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1994; 21:317325. MEDLINE
  • 3
    Loguerico C, Sava E, Sicolo P, Castellano L, Narciso O. Nutritional status and survival of patients with liver cirrhosis: anthropometric evaluation. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 1996; 42:5760. MEDLINE
  • 4
    Shaw BW, Wood RP, Gordon RD, Iwatsuki S, Gillquist WP, Starzl TE. Influence of selected patient variables and operative blood loss on six-month survival following liver transplantation. Semin Liver Dis 1985; 5:385393. MEDLINE
  • 5
    Pikul J, Sharpe MD, Lowndes R, Ghent CN. Degree of preoperative malnutrition is predictive of postoperative morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1994; 57:469472. MEDLINE
  • 6
    Mendenhall C, Roselle GA, Gartside P, Moritz T. Relationship of protein calorie malnutrition to alcoholic liver disease: a reexamination of data from two Veterans Administration Cooperative Studies. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1995; 19:635641. MEDLINE
  • 7
    Merli M, Riggio O, Dally L. Does malnutrition affect survival in cirrhosis? Policentrica Italiana Nutrizione Cirrosi. Hepatology 1996; 23:10411046. MEDLINE
  • 8
    Cabre E, Gonzalez-Huix F, Abad-Lacruz A, Esteve M, Acero D, Fernandez-Bañares F, Xiol X, et al. Effect of total enteral nutrition on the short-term outcome of severely malnourished cirrhotics. A randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 1990; 98:715720. MEDLINE
  • 9
    Kearns PJ, Young H, Garcia G, Blaschke T, O'Hanlon G, Rinki M, Sucher K, et al. Accelerated improvement of alcoholic liver disease with enteral nutrition. Gastroenterology 1992; 102:200205. MEDLINE
  • 10
    Hirsch S, Bunout D, de la Maza P, Iturriaga H, Petermann M, Icazar G, Gattas V, et al. Controlled trial on nutrition supplementation in outpatients with symptomatic alcoholic cirrhosis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1993; 17:119124. MEDLINE
  • 11
    Mendenhall CL, Moritz TE, Roselle GA, Morgan TR, Nemchausky BA, Tamburro CH, Schiff ER, et al. A study of oral nutritional support with oxandrolone in malnourished patients with alcoholic hepatitis: results of a Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study. Hepatology 1993; 17:564576. MEDLINE
  • 12
    Swart GR, van den Berg JWO, van Vuure JK, Rietveld T, Wattimena DL, Frenkel M. Minimum protein requirements in liver cirrhosis determined by nitrogen balance measurements at three levels of protein intake. Clin Nutr 1989; 8:329336.
  • 13
    Nielsen K, Kondrup J, Martinsen L, Stilling B, Wikman B. Nutritional assessment and adequacy of dietary intake in hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Br J Nutr 1993; 69:665679. MEDLINE
  • 14
    Nielsen K, Kondrup J, Martinsen L, Dossing H, Larsson B, Stilling B, Jensen MG. Long-term oral refeeding of patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Br J Nutr 1995; 74:557567. MEDLINE
  • 15
    Kondrup J, Nielsen K, Juul A. Effect of long-term refeeding on protein metabolism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Br J Nutr 1997; 77:197212. MEDLINE
  • 16
    Owen OE, Trapp VE, Reichard GA, Mozzoli MA, Moctezuma J, Paul P, Skutches CL, et al. Nature and quantity of fuels consumed in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. J Clin Invest 1983; 72:18211832. MEDLINE
  • 17
    Merli M, Riggio O, Romiti A, Ariosto F, Mango L, Pinto G, Savioli M, et al. Basal energy production rate and substrate use in stable cirrhotic patients. Hepatology 1990; 12:106112. MEDLINE
  • 18
    Schneeweiss B, Graninger W, Ferenci P, Eichinger S, Grimm G, Schneider B, Laggner AN, et al. Energy metabolism in patients with acute and chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1990; 11:387393. MEDLINE
  • 19
    Green JH, Bramley PN, Losowsky MS. Are patients with primary biliary cirrhosis hypermetabolic? A comparison between patients before and after liver transplantation and controls. Hepatology 1991; 14:464472. MEDLINE
  • 20
    Müller MJ, Fenk A, Lautz HU, Selberg O, Canzler H, Balks HJ, Von Zur Mühlen A, et al. Energy expenditure and substrate metabolism in ethanol-induced liver cirrhosis. Am J Physiol 1991; 260:E338E344. MEDLINE
  • 21
    Campillo B, Bories PN, Devanlay M, Sommer F, Wirquin E, Fouet P. The thermogenic and metabolic effects of food in liver cirrhosis: Consequences on the storage of nutrients and the hormonal counterregulatory response. Metabolism 1992; 41:476482. MEDLINE
  • 22
    Chang WK, Chao YC, Tang HS, Lang HF, Hsu CT. Effects of extra-carbohydrate supplementation in the late evening on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in patients with liver cirrhosis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997; 21:9699. MEDLINE
  • 23
    Plauth M, Merli M, Kondrup J, Weimann A, Ferenci P, Müller MJ. ESPEN guidelines for nutrition in liver disease and transplantation. Clin Nutr 1997; 16:4355.
  • 24
    Harris JA, Benedict TG. Biometric Studies of Basal Metabolism in Man. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington.: Publication no. 279 4355.
  • 25
    Shanbhogue RLK, Bistrian BR, Jenkins RL, Jones C, Benotti P, Blackburn GL. Resting energy expenditure in patients with end-stage liver disease and in normal population. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1987; 11:305308. MEDLINE
  • 26
    John WJ, Phillips R, Ott L, Adams LJ, McClain CJ. Resting energy expenditure in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1989; 13:124127. MEDLINE
  • 27
    Vermeij CG, Feenstra BWA, Oomen AMFA, De Graaf EJR, Zillikens MC, Swart GR, Bruining HA. Assessment of energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry in healthy subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1991; 15:421425. MEDLINE
  • 28
    Müller MJ, Lautz HU, Plogmann B, Bürger M, Körber J, Schmidt FW. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in patients with cirrhosis: the impact of cause, clinical staging and nutritional state. Hepatology 1992; 15:782794. MEDLINE
  • 29
    Pierrugues R, Blanc P, Daures JP, Michel H. Relationship of resting energy expenditure with liver function and nutritional status in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Nutrition 1992; 8:2225. MEDLINE
  • 30
    Chen WJ, Chung YC. Energy expenditure in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 1994; 73:590595. MEDLINE
  • 31
    Campillo B, Bories PN, Leluan M, Pornin B, Devanlay M, Fouet P. Short-term changes in energy metabolism after 1 month of a regular oral diet in severely malnourished cirrhotic patients. Metabolism 1995; 44:765770. MEDLINE
  • 32
    Waluga M, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Janusz M, Slabiak Z, Chelmicka A. Resting energy expenditure in patients with cirrhosis of the liver measured by indirect calorimetry, anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Experientia 1996; 52:591596. MEDLINE
  • 33
    Selberg O, Böttcher J, Tusch G, Pichlmayr R, Henkel E, Müller MJ. Identification of high- and low-risk patients before liver transplantation: a prospective cohort study of nutritional and metabolic parameters in 150 patients. Hepatology 1997; 25:652657. MEDLINE
  • 34
    Robertson JD, Reid DD. Standards for the basal metabolism of normal people in Britain. Lancet 1952; 1:940943.
  • 35
    Cunningham JJ. A reanalysis of the factors influencing basal metabolic rate in normal adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33:23722374. MEDLINE
  • 36
    Schofield WN. Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1985; 39C(Suppl):541.
  • 37
    Owen OE, Kavle E, Owen RS, Polansky M, Caprio S, Mozzoli MA, Kendrick ZV, et al. A reappraisal of caloric requirements in healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44:119. MEDLINE
  • 38
    Owen OE, Holup JL, D'Alessio DA, Craig ES, Polansky M, Smalley KJ, Kavle EC, et al. A reappraisal of the caloric requirements of men. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 46:875885. MEDLINE
  • 39
    Mifflin MD, St Jeor ST, Hill LA, Scott BJ, Daugherty SA, Koh YO. A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51:241247. MEDLINE
  • 40
    Müller MJ, Böttcher J, Selberg O. Energy expenditure and substrate metabolism in liver cirrhosis. Int J Obes 1993; 17(Suppl):S102S106.
  • 41
    Pugh RNH, Murray-Lyon IM, Dawson JL, Pietroni MC, Williams R. Tran* of the oesophagus for bleeding oesophageal varices. Br J Surg 1973; 60:646649. MEDLINE
  • 42
    Mendenhall CL. Protein-calorie malnutrition in alcoholic liver disease. In: WatsonRR, WatzlB, eds. Nutrition and Alcohol. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1992; 363384.
  • 43
    Durnin JVGA, Rahaman MM. The assessment of the amount of fat in the human body from measurements of skinfold thickness. Br J Nutr 1967; 21:681689. MEDLINE
  • 44
    Frisancho AR. Triceps skin fold and upper arm muscle size norms for assessment of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 1974; 27:10521057. MEDLINE
  • 45
    Bishop CW, Bowen PE, Ritchey SJ. Norms for nutritional assessment of American adults by upper arm anthropometry. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:25302539. MEDLINE
  • 46
    Durnin JVGA, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr 1974; 32:7797. MEDLINE
  • 47
    Madden AM, Soulsby CT, Morgan MY. Assessment of nutrition in patients with cirrhosis [Abstract]. J Hepatol 1997; 26(Suppl):125.
  • 48
    MacKay EM, MacKay LL. The concentration of urea in the blood of normal individuals. J Clin Invest 1927; 4:295306.
  • 49
    Palmo A, Ombra L, Massarenti P, De Nicola A, Gavassa L, Veglia F, Balzola F. Proposal of a new formula to calculate total urinary nitrogen from urea urinary nitrogen. Clin Nutr 1989; 8:4547.
  • 50
    Elia M, Livesey G. Energy expenditure and fuel selection in biological systems: the theory and practice of calculations based on indirect calorimetry and tracer methods. World Rev Nutr Diet 1992; 70:68131. MEDLINE
  • 51
    Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1986; 1:307310. MEDLINE
  • 52
    Garrow JS. Resting metabolic rate as a determinant of energy expenditure in man. In: GarrowJS, HallidayD, eds. Substrate and Energy Metabolism. London: John Libbey, 1985; 102107.
  • 53
    Levine JA, Morgan MY. Measurement of energy expenditure in man: a review of available methods. J Nutr Med 1990; 1:325343.
  • 54
    Bursztein S, Elwyn DH, Askanazi J, Kinney JM. Energy Metabolism, Indirect Calorimetry, and Nutrition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 1989; 2745.
  • 55
    Ksiazyk J, Lyszkowska M, Kierkus J. Energy metabolism in portal hypertension in children. Nutrition 1996; 12:469474. MEDLINE
  • 56
    Madden AM, Morgan MY. A comparison of skinfold anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis for measuring percentage body fat in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1994; 21:878883. MEDLINE
  • 57
    Daly JM, Heymsfield SB, Head CA, Harvey LP, Nixon DW, Katzeff H, Grossman GD. Human energy requirements: overestimation by widely used prediction equation. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 42:11701174. MEDLINE
  • 58
    Fredrix EWHM, Soeters PB, Deerenberg IM, Kester ADM, von Meyenfeldt MF, Saris WHM. Resting and sleeping energy expenditure in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990; 44:741747. MEDLINE
  • 59
    Pullicino E, Copperstone C, Luzi L, McNeill G, Elia M. Relationship between anthropometric indices of body fat distribution and basal energy metabolism in healthy Maltese women. Acta Diabetol 1996; 33:198204. MEDLINE
  • 60
    Piers LS, Diffey B, Soares MJ, Frandsen SL, McCormack LM, Lutschini MJ, O'Dea K. The validity of predicting the basal metabolism of young Australian men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997; 51:333337. MEDLINE
  • 61
    Heymsfield SB, Waki M, Reinus J. Are patients with chronic liver disease hypermetabolic? Hepatology 1990; 11:502505. MEDLINE
  • 62
    Bosari S, Marradi C, Chiara O, Bevilacqua G, Nespoli A. Energy expenditure in cirrhotic patients. In: KleinbergerG, FerenciP, RiedererP, ThalerH, eds. Advances in Hepatic Encephalopathy and Urea Cycle Diseases. Basel: Karger, 1984; 674681.