• 1
    Valente WA, Talbert RJA, Hallett JP Mackowiak PD. Caveat Cenans! Am J Med 2002; 112:392398.
  • 2
    Findlay WPK. Fungus lore of the Greeks and Romans. In: Fungi: Folklore, Fiction and Fact. Surrey: The Richmond Publishing Co., Ltd., 1982:19.
  • 3
    Grimm-Samuel V. On the mushroom which deified the Emperor Claudius. Classical Quart 1991; 41:178182.
  • 4
    Carey E (translator). Dio's Roman History. In: Loeb Classical Library Series. Volumes 7 and 8. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914–1927.
  • 5
    Houppermans R. Why did the 5th Earl of Derby die? Lancet 2001; 358:1187.
  • 6
    Benjamin DR. History of mushroom eating and mushroom poisoning. In: BenjaminDR, ed. Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaceas. New York: WH Freeman and Company, 1995:3237.
  • 7
    MacFall JEW. Buchanan's Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 9th edition. Edinburgh: E & S Livingstone, 1925.
  • 8
    Drake TGH. The medical caricatures of Thomas Rowlandson. Bull Hist Med 1942; 12:323325.
  • 9
    Rattanvilay K, Tavares N, Eliaser G, Hands G, Boynton S, Young J, Holtzer R, Tong TG, et al. Mushroom poisoning among Laotian Refugees. MMWR 1982; 31:287288.
  • 10
    Pinson CW, Daya MR, Benner KG, Norton RL, Deveney KE, Ascher NL, Roberts JD, et al. Liver transplantation for severe Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning. Am J Surg 1990; 159:493499.
  • 11
    Broussard CN, Aggarwal A, Lacey SR, Post AB, Gramlida T, Henderson JM, Younnos ZM. Mushroom poisoning—from diarrhea to liver transplantation. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 93:31953198.
  • 12
    Rold JF. Mushroom madness. Psychoactive fungi and the risk of fatal poisoning. Postgrad Med 1986; 79:217218.
  • 13
    Ferńandez-Armesto F. Near a Thousand Tables. A History of Food. New York: The Free Press, 2002:33.
  • 14
    Bernuau J, Rueff B, Benhamou J-P. Fulminant and subfulminant liver failure: definition and causes. Semin Liver Dis 1986; 6:97106.
  • 15
    US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins handbook. Chapter 40 mushroom toxins.∼mow/chap40.html.
  • 16
    Litten W. The most poisonous mushrooms. Sci Am 1975; 232:90101.
  • 17
    Williams R. Classification, etiology and considerations of outcome in acute liver failure. Semin Liver Dis 1996; 16:343348.
  • 18
    Schiødt FV, Atillasoy E, Shakil AO, Schiff ER, Caldwell C, Kowdley KV, Stribling R, et al. Etiology and outcome for 295 patients with acute liver failure in the United States. Liver Transpl Surg 1999; 5:2934.
  • 19
    Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiødt FV, Larson A, Davern TJ, Han SHB, McCashland TM, et al. Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States. Ann Int Med 2002; 137:947954.
  • 20
    Wainwright J, Schonland MM. Toxic hepatitis in black patients in Natal. S Afr Med J 1977; 51:571573.
  • 21
    Davidson DG, Eastham WN. Acute liver necrosis following overdose of paaracetamol. Brit Med J 1966; 2:497499.
  • 22
    Thomson JS, Prescott LF. Liver damage and impaired glucose tolerance after paracetamol overdosage. Brit Med J 1966; 2:506507.
  • 23
    Chen TS, Chen PS. Understanding the liver. A history. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984:146151.
  • 24
    Hippocrates. The sacred disease. In: Adams F (transl). The Genuine Works of Hippocrates. New York: W. Wood, 1929:344.
  • 25
    Minkowski O. Ueber den Einfluss der Leber-exstirpation auf den Stoffwechsel. Arch Exp Path Pharmakol 1886; 21:4187.
  • 26
    Mann FC, Magath TB. The effect of total removal of the liver. Tr Sec Path Physiol Amer Med Assoc 1921;2942.
  • 27
    Lucké B, Mallory T. The fulminant form of epidemic hepatitis. Am J Pathol 1946; 22:867945.
  • 28
    Trey C, Davidson CS. The management of fulminant hepatic failure. Progr Liver Dis 1970; 3:282298.
  • 29
    Trey C, Lipworth L, Chalmers TC, Davidson CS, Gottlieb LS, Popper H, Saunders SJ. Fulminant hepatic failure. Presumable contribution of halothane. N Engl J Med 1968; 279:798801.
  • 30
    Donovan JP, Schafer DF, Shaw BW Jr, Sorrell MF. Cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure in chronic liver disease. Lancet 1998; 351:719721.
  • 31
    Blei AT. Pathophysiology of brain edema in fulminant hepatic failure, revisited. Metab Brain Dis 2001; 16:8594.
  • 32
    Grady JG, Schalm SW, Williams R. Acute liver failure: redefining the syndromes. Lancet 1993; 342:273275.
  • 33
    Bernuau J, Benhamou J-P. Classifying acute liver failure. Lancet 1993; 342:252253.
  • 34
    Ferenci P, Lockwood A, Mullen K, Tarter R, Weissenborn K, Blei AT. Hepatic encephalopathy—definition, nomenclature, diagnosis, and quantification: final report of the working party of the 11th World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Vienna 1998. Hepatology 2002; 35:716721.
  • 35
    Ritt DJ, Whelan G, Werner DJ, Eigenbrodt EH, Schenker S, Combes B. Acute hepatic necrosis with stupor or coma. An analysis of thirty-one patients. Medicine 1969; 48:151172.
  • 36
    Marmion VJ, Wiederman TEJ. The death of Claudius. J Roy Soc Med 2002; 95:260261.
  • 37
    Jeffcoate W. Why did the 5th Early of Derby die? Lancet 2001; 357:18761879.