Theta rhythm is the largest, most prominent, and well-documented electroencephalography activity present in a number of mammals, including humans. Spontaneous theta activity recorded locally in the posterior hypothalamic area (PHa) has never been the subject of detailed studies. The authors have shown that local theta field potentials could be generated in urethane-anesthetized rats in the supramammillary (SuM) nuclei and posterior hypothalamic (PH) nuclei. Theta recorded in the PHa was produced independently of simultaneously occurring hippocampal theta. These data were confirmed in the PHa maintained in vitro. Local theta field activity was recorded in the SuM and PH nuclei of PHa slice preparations perfused with cholinergic agonist carbachol. Both in vivo and in vitro recorded PHa theta rhythmicity had a cholinergic–muscarinic profile, that is, it was antagonized by muscarinic antagonist atropine sulfate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.