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Abstract

The macrocyclization between buckminsterfullerene, C60, and bis-malonate derivatives in double Bingel reaction provides a versatile and simple method for the preparation of covalent bis-adducts of C60 with high regio- and diastereoselectivity. A combination of spectral analysis, stereochemical considerations, and X-ray crystallography (Fig. 2) revealed that out of the possible in-in, in-out, and out-out stereoisomers, the reaction of bis-malonates linked by o-, m-, or p-xylylene tethers afforded only the out-out ones (Scheme 1). In contrast, the use of larger tethers derived from 1,10-phenanthroline also provided a first example, (±)-19 (Scheme 2), of an in-out product. Starting from optically pure bis-malonate derivatives, the new bis-functionalization method permitted the diastereoselective preparation of optically active fullerene derivatives (Schemes 4 and 5) and, ultimately, the enantioselective preparation (enantiomeric excess ee > 97%) of optically active cis-3 bis-adducts whose chirality results exclusively from the addition pattern (Fig. 6). The macrocyclic fixation of a bis-malonate with an optically active, 9,9′-spirobi[9H-fluorene]-derived tether to C60 under generation of 24 and ent-24 with an achiral addition pattern (Scheme 4) was found to induce dramatic changes in the chiroptical properties of the tether chromophore such as strong enhancement and reversal of sign of the Cotton effects in the circular dichroism (CD) spectra (Figs. 4 and 5). By the same method, the functionafized bis-adducts 50 and 51 (Schemes 10 and 11) were prepared as initiator cores for the synthesis of the fullerene dendrimers 62, 63, and 66 (Schemes 12 and 13) by convergent growth. Finally, the new methodology was extended, to the regio- and diastereoselective construction of higher cyclopropanated adducts. Starting from mono-adduct 71, a clipping reaction provided exclusively the all-cis-2 tris-adduct (±)-72 (Scheme 14), whereas the similar reaction of bis-adduct 76 afforded the all-cis-2 tetrakis-adduct 77 (Scheme 15). Electrochemical investigations by steady-state voltammetry (Table 2) in CH2Cl2 (+0.1M Bu4NPF6) showed that all macroeyciic bis(methano)fullerenes underwent multiple reduction steps, and that regioisomerism was not much influencing the redox potentials, All cis-2 bis-adducts gave an instable dianion which decomposed during the electrochemical reduction. In CH2Cl2, the redox potential of the fullerene core in dendrimers 62, 63, and 66 is not affected by differences in size and density of the surrounding poly(ether-amide) dendrons. The all-cis-2 tris- and tetrakis(meihano)fullercnes (±)-72 and 77, respectively, are reduced at more negative potential than previously reported all-e tris- and tetrakis-adducts with methane bridges that are also located along an equatorial belt. This indicates a larger perturbation of the original fullerene π-chromophore and a larger raise in LUMO energy in the former derivatives.