Angiogenesis is an essential process for the expansion of multiple myeloma (MM), in which many angiogenic factors participate. Endoglin (CD105) is a transforming growth factor-β co-receptor, being mainly expressed in angiogenic endothelial cells and has been used as a marker of tumor angiogenesis, having prognostic potential. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of soluble CD105 (sCD105) in MM patients, both during diagnosis and after effective conventional chemotherapy, in the plateau phase, and to correlate them with the clinical stage of the disease, as well as with the known angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, angiogenin and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Serum levels of the aforementioned factors were measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in 56 newly diagnosed MM patients, in 35 of them who entered plateau phase and in 24 healthy controls. Bone marrow aspirations were also performed in all patients to determine plasma cell infiltration. All measured cytokines were higher in MM patients compared with controls and with advancing disease stage (p < 0.001 for all cases). Furthermore, the values of all factors decreased significantly in the plateau phase (p < 0.001 for all cases). Serum levels of sCD105 correlated with the other angiogenic cytokines, whereas only serum levels of angiogenin had prognostic value for the survival. In conclusion, CD105 and the angiogenic cytokines vascular endothelial growth factor, angiogenin and IL-18, seem to have emerging roles both in angiogenesis and tumor growth in MM. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.