Expression profiling using DNA microarrays has been very helpful to improve our knowledge of the pathobiology of many tumour types, including lymphomas. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) constitute an heterogeneous group of tumours with different morphologic, immunophenotypic, and clinical characteristics. Their complexity and their low frequency in the western countries have made difficult the identification of molecular events responsible of the development of these tumours. The first studies on expression profiling of PTCL have also revealed heterogeneity at this level, mainly regarding the PTCL NOS subgroup. Different molecular subgroups within PTCL unspecified have been identified associated to different expression profiles. However, the clinical significance of this molecular sub-classification remains to be probed in studies involving larger number of samples. In addition, the expression level of NF-kB pathway genes allowed to differentiate two PTCL subgroups, and this difference could have clinical interest. In general, PTCL expression profiles are difficult to interpret due to the significant proportion of other infiltrating cells accompanying the tumour. However, microarrays are being a helpful tool in the initial task of dissecting the PTCL expression profile. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.