Some developing countries have incorporated managed care elements into their national health insurance schemes. In practice, hybrid health management organizations (Hmos) are insurers who, bearing some resemblance to managed care in the USA, are vertically integrated in the scheme's revenue collection and pool and purchase healthcare services within a competitive framework. To date, few studies have focused on these organizations and their level of satisfaction with the scheme's optimal-resource-use (ORU) implementation. In Nigeria, the study site, Hmos were categorized on the basis of their satisfaction with ORU activities. One hundred forty-seven Hmo staff were randomly interviewed. The types of ORU domain categories were provider payment mechanism, administrative efficiency, benefit package inclusions and active monitoring mechanism. Bivariate analysis was used to determine differences among the Hmos' satisfaction with the various ORU domains. The Hmos' satisfaction with the health insurance scheme's ORU activities was 59.2% generally, and the associated factors were identified. According to the Hmos' perspectives related to the type of ORU, the fee-for-service payment method and regular inspection performed weakly. Hmos' limited satisfaction with the scheme's ORU raises concerns regarding ineffectiveness that may hinder implementation. To offset high risks in the scheme, it appears necessary for the regulatory agency to adapt and reform strategies of provider payment and active monitoring mechanisms according to stakeholder needs. Our findings further reveal that having Hmos evaluate ORU is useful for providing evidence-based information for policy making and regulatory utilization related to implementation of the health insurance scheme. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.