How can human resource management (HRM) practices promote entrepreneurial performance in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)? This article discusses the association between human capital management (HCM) and other contemporary HRM practices and the ability of SMEs to be entrepreneurial. In a study of 99 SMEs, HRM practices that promote employee discretionary behavior, knowledge sharing, and organizational learning are found to be positively associated with entrepreneurial performance. Two contingencies are also identified for this relationship. First, the use of strategic HCM practices enhances the observed positive association. Second, these relationships are strongest for SMEs operating in high-technology industries. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.