Two paradigm shifts are discussed here: talentship and sustainability. First, the traditional service-oriented HR focus must be extended to a “decision science” that enhances decisions about human capital. We call this decision science talentship. It includes talent segmentation, or identifying pivotal talent pools where the quality and/or availability of human capital makes the biggest difference to strategic success. Second, HR and business leaders increasingly define organizational effectiveness beyond traditional financial outcomes to encompass sustainability—achieving success today without compromising the needs of the future. A common strategic human capital decision science can reveal pivotal talent under both traditional and sustainability-based definitions, and thus uncover important insights about the talent implications of the shifting definition of strategic success. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.