This article explores the relationship between HR competencies and HR effectiveness as perceived by line managers and employees within 39 surveyed Taiwanese high-tech firms. The data were collected from multiple constituencies in the form of four targeted surveys, and the analysis was conducted at the firm level. Respondents included 182 high-level executives, 152 HR managers, 320 line managers, and 1,262 employees. Results suggest that in the Taiwanese high-tech context, HR competencies of field expertise and change management are strongly related to HR effectiveness as perceived by line managers and employees, while business knowledge is not. Managerial implications and future research direction are also discussed in the article. This study contributes to a better understanding of HRM competencies and HR effectiveness within an international context. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.