The breadth and depth of research on organizational diversity reveals the complex nature of diversity in organizations. Indeed, research in the realm of human resource management focuses on diversity applied to a variety of topics, including recruitment, retention, succession planning, and work-life management, among others. In this article, we use Cox and Blake's (1991) advantages as a framework to review the diversity literature and suggest that organizational culture may be key to understanding when organizations will benefit from a diverse employee base. Specifically, organizations that emphasize inclusion and integrate diversity into all policies and practices may benefit to a greater extent compared with organizations focusing on diversity as a stand-alone practice. Through an examination of academic research and the award-winning diversity program of Campbell Soup Company (Catalyst, 2010), we make culturally based propositions to further diversity research in, and the practice of, human resource management. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.