• human resource management;
  • innovation;
  • performance;
  • China


Complementing previous research that showed a positive effect of general human resource management (HRM) systems on general firm performance, this article undertakes an integrative approach to compare the main effects and examine the interaction effects of two particular HRM systems on influencing firm innovation and performance. Using data from 179 organizations in China, we found that both the commitment-oriented system, which emphasized internal cohesiveness, and the collaboration-oriented system, which was intended to build external connections, contributed to firm innovation and, subsequently, bottom-line performance. We also found an attenuated interaction between the two HRM systems in predicting firm innovation. We employed a mediated-moderation path model to extricate the relationships. Results suggested that organizations that implemented both HRM systems to promote innovation might face ambidexterity challenges. Ideas for future research and practical implications are discussed.