The moderating role of work contracts on the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and the self-reported performance of 1,311 permanent and 924 temporary employees across three sectors was studied using a multilevel design in 103 organizations in three European countries. The HR practice examined was training and its allocation to the different workforce groups. The relationship between training for permanent employees and performance was moderated by work contract as well as country. In the Spanish sample, the performance of temporary employees was more negatively related to training for permanent employees as compared to the Dutch and the Swedish sample. Unexpectedly, in the Dutch sample, training provision was negatively related to the workforce group it was provided for. It is the temporary employees that seemed to be the cause of the interactions, underlining the call for special treatment of this workforce. Results indicate a considerable role of the interplay of job dependence and labor market conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.