Two out of 47 patients with sporadic tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the most common cyanotic conotruncal heart defect (CTD), showed heterozygous missense mutations of the ZFPM2/FOG2 gene. Knockout mice carrying mutations in the ZFPM2/FOG2 gene have similarly been found to exhibit TOF. While both mutant ZFPM2/FOG2 proteins, E30G (c.88A>G) and S657G (c.1968A>G), retain the ability to bind the partner protein GATA4 and repress GATA4 mediated gene activation, the S657G, but not the E30G, mutation is subtly impaired in this function. ZFPM2/FOG2 gene mutations may contribute to some sporadic cases of TOF. Hum Mutat 22:372–377, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.