Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a mendelian disorder characterized by calcification of elastic fibers in skin, arteries, and retina. It results in dermal lesions, arterial insufficiency and retinal hemorrhages, leading to macular degeneration. PXE is transmitted either as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait and several sporadic cases have been observed. Mutations in the ABCC6 gene have been identified very recently in patients. Here, we report on a large Italian family affected by pseudoxanthoma elasticum for which linkage analysis had pointed to a region encompassing markers D16S3069-D16S405-D16S3103; hemizygosity of marker D16S405 allowed us to detect a submicroscopic deletion of at least 900 kb involving ABCC6, ABCC1, and MYH11. Mutation analysis on the other allele of the family, as well as on two additional sporadic cases, revealed nonsense (Y227X, R518X, R1164X) and frame-shift (c.960delC) mutations in ABCC6 (MRP6) further confirming the role of this multi-drug resistance gene in the etiology of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Furthermore, clinical re-examination of members of the family harboring the deletion led to the detection of additional features, potentially caused by the deletion of the MYH11 gene. In the course of the analysis five nonpathogenic variants were found in ABCC6: 1233T>C, 1245G>A, 1838 T>G (V614A), 1890C>G, and 3506+83C>A. Hum Mutat 18:85, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.