Branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BOR) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the association of branchial and external ear malformations, hearing loss, and renal anomalies. The phenotype varies from ear pits to profound hearing loss, branchial fistulae, and kidney agenesis. The most common gene mutated in BOR families is EYA1, a transcriptional activator. Over 80 different disease-causing mutations have been published (www.healthcare.uiowa.edu/labs/pendredandbor/, last accessed 20 November 2007). We analyzed the EYA1 coding region (16 exons) from 435 families (345 at the University of Iowa [UI] and 95 at Boys Town National Research Hospital [BTNRH], including five at both) and found 70 different EYA1 mutations in 89 families. Most of the mutations (56/70) were private. EYA1 mutations were found in 31% of families (76/248) fitting established clinical criteria for BOR and 7% of families with questionable BOR phenotype (13/187). Severity of the phenotype did not correlate with type of mutation nor with the domain involved. These results add considerably to the spectrum of EYA1 mutations associated with BOR and indicate that the BOR phenotype is an indication for molecular studies to diagnose EYA1-associated BOR. Hum Mutat 29(4), 537–544, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.