Mutations in ectodysplasin, the protein product of the EDA or ED1 gene, cause X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. From sixteen families we have identified thirteen mutations, of which nine were novel: a deletion of the entire exon 1, altered splicing site in intron 7 (IVS-2A→G) and in intron 9 (IVS9+8 C→G), deletion of 8 bp (1967-1974 nt), four missense mutations (G255C, G255D, W274G, C332Y) and nonsense mutation W274X. Previously identified and the novel mutations form four clusters: 1) at the junction of the transmembrane and extracellular domains, 2) at a putative protease recognition site, possibly affecting cleavage of ectodysplasin, 3) at the trimerizing collagen-like domain, and 4) at regions of high homology to tumor necrosis factor domains. Truncating and splice site mutations occur within the proximal two-thirds of the protein. Our data suggest the functional importance of specific ectodysplasin domains. Hum Mutat 17:349, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.