Sixteen unrelated Southern European patients with the mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS) were analyzed for mutations in the TK2 and DGUOK genes. Three novel mutations were identified in TK2 (R183G, R254X, and 142insG). When we analyzed additional genes involved in the dNTPs pool, such as SLC25A19 (DNC) and NT5M (d-NT2), we did not detect mutations. The current study suggest that scanning the TK2, DGUOK, SLC25A19, and NT5M genes is likely to help about 10% of MDS families in terms of genetic counseling. Also, our findings indicate that genotype-phenotype correlations are not straightforward in MDS. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.