Mutation analysis performed on six Italian families with alpha-mannosidosis type II allowed the identification of five new mutations in the MAN2B1 gene: c.157G>T, c.562C>T, c.599A>T, c.293dupA, c.2402G>A (p.E53X, p.R188X, p.H200L, p.Y99VfsX61, p.G801D). Protein residues G801 and H200 are conserved among the four mammalian alpha-mannosidases cloned to date: human, cattle, cat and mouse. In vitro expression studies demonstrated that both missense mutations expressed no residual alpha-mannosidase activity indicating that they are disease-causing mutations. Modelling into the three-dimensional structure revealed that the p.H200L could involve the catalytic mechanism, whereas p.G801D would affect the correct folding of the enzyme. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.