Gender influences on efficacy and safety of sublingual zolpidem tartrate for middle-of-the-night awakening in insomnia




Evaluate potential gender effects on efficacy and safety of a buffered zolpidem sublingual tablet (ZST) formulation.


Post hoc analysis of the pivotal sleep laboratory and outpatient studies, per gender.


In the sleep laboratory study, polysomnography-derived latency to persistent sleep after middle-of-the-night was significantly improved for both genders at both 1.75 mg and 3.5 mg ZST (females: 15.7 and 8.6 min, respectively, vs. 27.7 min [placebo]; males: 19.0 and 12.7 min vs. 29.0 min [placebo]) with no significant gender differences. In the outpatient study, subjective sleep onset latency after middle-of-the-night was significantly shorter for both genders treated with ZST 3.5 mg versus placebo over the 4-week average (females: 37.3 vs. 59.4 min, p < 0.0001; males: 38.6 vs. 55.1 min, p ≤ 0.01). There were no gender differences in subjective sleep onset latency after middle-of-the-night awakening. In the outpatient study, weekly usage of ZST and placebo by both genders declined throughout the study. Morning alertness following dosing nights improved in both genders, although significant only in females. In both studies, there were no gender differences in adverse events.


Time to return to sleep after middle-of-the-night dosing with ZST improved in both genders, with no gender differences in efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.