Various regional flood frequency analysis procedures are used in hydrology to estimate hydrological variables at ungauged or partially gauged sites. Relatively few studies have been conducted to evaluate the accuracy of these procedures and estimate the error induced in regional flood frequency estimation models. The objective of this paper is to assess the overall error induced in the residual kriging (RK) regional flood frequency estimation model. The two main error sources in specific flood quantile estimation using RK are the error induced in the quantiles local estimation procedure and the error resulting from the regional quantile estimation process. Therefore, for an overall error assessment, the corresponding errors associated with these two steps must be quantified. Results show that the main source of error in RK is the error induced into the regional quantile estimation method. Results also indicate that the accuracy of the regional estimates increases with decreasing return periods. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.