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Keywords:

  • Stream temperature;
  • riparian vegetation;
  • vegetative shade;
  • salmon;
  • endangered species;
  • river management

Abstract

Reducing or stabilizing the stream temperature of ChiChiaWan Creek is a crucial work for Formosan Landlocked Salmon because ChiChiaWan Creek is the only one habitat for this endangered species. Planting trees in the riparian zone would be one of the alternatives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of several planting strategies on daily maximum stream temperature along the river. The results showed the effective vegetative shading angles should be more than 50° along ChiChiaWan Creek to reduce the direct solar radiation heating effectively. Upstream planting with 70° vegetative shading angle could be the most effective way among all the scenarios. However, this planting strategy could not improve the worst situations in summer because of the large solar elevation angles. The upstream planting in ChiChiaWan Creek was strongly recommended because the canopies could be easier to extend to totally cover the narrow width of river producing the most effective shades. Practicing the upstream planting with 90° vegetative shading angle can increase more than 1 km long suitable habitats for the endangered Salmon in summer. Alternatively, the west-side planting scenario was the second effective way for temperature reduction. Our result provided a useful suggestion for the authorities in charge of saving the Formosan Landlocked Salmon, particularly under the stress of global warming. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.