Background: The best available tool to assess recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) is ileocolonoscopy (CC). Small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) and wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) are noninvasive techniques able to detect small bowel lesions. In a prospective longitudinal study, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of SICUS and WCE for assessing postoperative recurrence of CD 1 year after surgery, using CC as the gold standard.
Methods: Twenty-two patients (11 men, median age 33 years, range 22–67 years) undergoing ileocolonic resection for CD were prospectively followed from July 2003 to May 2006, with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) used for clinical assessment every 3 months for 1 year. At 1 year, recurrence was assessed by SICUS and CC, followed by WCE. CD recurrence was assessed by CC (Rutgeerts score). SICUS was performed after ingestion of polyethylene glycol, and WCE was performed with Given M2A equipment.
Results: At 1 year, all 22 patients had inactive CD (CDAI < 150). In 5 patients, WCE was not performed because of luminal narrowing or stenosis. Seventeen of the 22 patients had all 3 techniques performed. CC detected recurrence in 21 of 22 patients. Lesions compatible with recurrence were detected by SICUS in all 22 patients (1 false positive). When considering only the 17 patients studied by all 3 techniques, recurrence was detected by CC in 16 of 17 patients, whereas lesions compatible with recurrence were detected by SICUS in all 17 patients (16 true positives [TPs], 1 FP) and by WCE in 16 of 17 patients (16 TPs, 1 true negative).
Conclusions: The present findings suggest that SICUS and WCE may be used as noninvasive techniques for the assessment of recurrence of CD in patients being regularly followed up after ileocolonic resection.
(Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007)