Lactobacillus casei downregulates commensals' inflammatory signals in Crohn's disease mucosa

Authors

  • Marta Llopis PhD,

    1. Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd)
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  • Maria Antolin PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd)
    • Digestive System Research Unit, Fundació Institut de Recerca Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Psg.Vall d'Hebron 119-129, Barcelona 08035, Spain
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  • Monica Carol PhD,

    1. Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd)
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  • Natalia Borruel MD,

    1. Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd)
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  • Francesc Casellas MD,

    1. Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd)
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  • Cristina Martinez MSc,

    1. Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd)
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  • Eloy Espín-Basany MD,

    1. Department of Surgery, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
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  • Francisco Guarner MD,

    1. Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd)
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  • Juan-R. Malagelada MD

    1. Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd)
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Abstract

Background: The interaction of commensal bacteria with the intestinal immune system is an essential factor in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The study of isolated commensal bacteria's effects on the mucosal immune response might be relevant for a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in IBD.

Methods: We investigated the immune responses to signals from the commensal Escherichia coli ATCC 35345 and the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 in Crohn's disease (CD) mucosa. Ileal specimens were obtained during surgery from CD patients. Mucosal explants were incubated with L. casei or its genomic DNA; TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL1 were measured in the supernatant. Second, tissue expression of key proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TGF-β, IL-23p19, IL-12p35, IL-17F), and chemokines (IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2) was evaluated after incubation with L. casei or E. coli. Finally, combination experiments were carried out by incubating both strains with mucosal explants at different timepoints.

Results: Live L. casei significantly decreased secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL1 by CD mucosa, but the effect was not reproduced by L. casei DNA. Second, live L. casei downregulated expression of IL-8, IL-6, and CXCL1 and did not modify expression of IL-23p19, IL-12p35, and IL-17F. In contrast, E. coli significantly upregulated expression of all these cytokines. Interestingly, combination experiments revealed the ability of L. casei to prevent and counteract the proinflammatory effects of E. coli.

Conclusions: Live L. casei can counteract the proinflammatory effects of E. coli on CD inflamed mucosa by specific downregulation of key proinflammatory mediators.

(Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008)

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