Lactobacillus casei downregulates commensals' inflammatory signals in Crohn's disease mucosa
Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008
Copyright © 2008 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 275–283, February 2009
How to Cite
Llopis, M., Antolin, M., Carol, M., Borruel, N., Casellas, F., Martinez, C., Espín-Basany, E., Guarner, F. and Malagelada, J.-R. (2009), Lactobacillus casei downregulates commensals' inflammatory signals in Crohn's disease mucosa. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 15: 275–283. doi: 10.1002/ibd.20736
- Issue published online: 8 JAN 2009
- Article first published online: 6 OCT 2008
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 JUL 2008
- Manuscript Received: 16 JUL 2007
- Generalitat de Catalunya. Grant Number: RE: 2001SGR00389
- Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. Grant Number: SAF 2007-64411
- Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Madrid, Spain)
Background: The interaction of commensal bacteria with the intestinal immune system is an essential factor in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The study of isolated commensal bacteria's effects on the mucosal immune response might be relevant for a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in IBD.
Methods: We investigated the immune responses to signals from the commensal Escherichia coli ATCC 35345 and the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 in Crohn's disease (CD) mucosa. Ileal specimens were obtained during surgery from CD patients. Mucosal explants were incubated with L. casei or its genomic DNA; TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL1 were measured in the supernatant. Second, tissue expression of key proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TGF-β, IL-23p19, IL-12p35, IL-17F), and chemokines (IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2) was evaluated after incubation with L. casei or E. coli. Finally, combination experiments were carried out by incubating both strains with mucosal explants at different timepoints.
Results: Live L. casei significantly decreased secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL1 by CD mucosa, but the effect was not reproduced by L. casei DNA. Second, live L. casei downregulated expression of IL-8, IL-6, and CXCL1 and did not modify expression of IL-23p19, IL-12p35, and IL-17F. In contrast, E. coli significantly upregulated expression of all these cytokines. Interestingly, combination experiments revealed the ability of L. casei to prevent and counteract the proinflammatory effects of E. coli.
Conclusions: Live L. casei can counteract the proinflammatory effects of E. coli on CD inflamed mucosa by specific downregulation of key proinflammatory mediators.
(Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008)