Background: Pancreatic autoantibodies (PAB) and goblet cell autoantibodies (GAB) are specific for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), but the sensitivity alone is low. Conventional antibodies and carbohydrates (glycans) are associated with disease phenotype and may be of diagnostic importance in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine the accuracy of PAB and GAB autoantibodies as well as to study relevant phenotype–serotype associations.
Methods: A Hungarian study cohort of 1092 subjects, including 689 well-characterized, unrelated IBD patients (CD: 579, m/f ratio: 274/305, duration: 7.9 ± 11.2 years; UC: 110, m/f ratio: 53/57, duration: 8.9 ± 9.8 years), 139 celiac patients, 100 healthy, and 64 non-IBD gastrointestinal controls were investigated. Sera were assayed for PAB-GAB IgA/IgG, anti-Omp, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), and anti-glycans. TLR4 and NOD2/CARD15 was tested by polymerase chain reaction / restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Detailed clinical phenotypes were determined.
Results: The prevalence of PAB was significantly more frequent in CD (41.1%) versus UC (22.7%), celiac (22.3%), and controls (8% and 4.6%, P < 0.01 for each), while GAB detection was poor in all groups except UC (15.4%). In CD the combination of PAB and/or anti-glycans/ASCA increased the sensitivity to 72% and 59%, respectively, for isolated colonic disease. PAB was associated to gylcans (odds ratio [OR] 1.74,P = 0.002), ASCA IgG/IgA (OR 1.75, P = 0.002), Omp (OR 1.86, P = 0.001) as well as perforating, perianal disease, arthritis, ocular, and cutaneous manifestations (P = 0.002–0.032). In contrast, PAB and GAB antibodies were not associated with NOD2/CARD15 or TLR4, response to medical therapy, or need for surgery. No associations were found in UC.
Conclusions: PAB autoantibodies in combination with ASCA or anti-glycan antibodies increase the sensitivity for detecting CD, especially isolated colonic CD. Antibody response to PAB was associated with complicated disease phenotype and extraintestinal manifestations in this Eastern European IBD cohort.
(Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008)